BIBLE STUDY SERIES #179, 180 and 181

23 April, 1995


By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

In this present series of Bible Studies, we have followed the unfolding of the Great Plan of The Almighty God for the reconstitution of His fallen Creation into a state of heightened perfection which will accord to His design. In this we had arrived at Mount Sinai, in company with the children of Israel for their national marriage to Yahweh (Jehovah), their God. A national portable focus of worship, the Tabernacle, has been described in outline, and the manner of the priesthood is, as we approach today's study, presently being described to Moses. Garments and symbolic regalia are being designated, as God moves to prepare them for office.

We have examined most of the priestly robes, but a few remain for our further study. They are described in the Scripture passage which completes the 28th chapter of Exodus. Although we had arrived at verse 35 on the last programme, I shall begin reading at verse 30 to pick up the previous themes in order to review the context for a variant consideration in today's study.

30. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.
31. And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
32. And there shall be an hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.
33. And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about:
34. A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
35. And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, and when he cometh out, that he die not.

According to Keil and Delitzsch, the pomegranates were to be "of dark-blue and dark-red purple and crimson, made of twisted yarn of these colours." We have seen that, just as the Olive Tree is used in Scripture as a symbol for all Israel collectively, the Vine for the later Northern Ten Tribes, and the Fig Tree for the remaining two-tribed Southern Kingdom of Judah, so these Pomegranates were to be taken as a symbol for the Aaronic Priesthood in the nation. We shall later discover an interesting reference in Numbers 13:23, a passage which describes the occasion when, as the tribes of Israel approached the Promised Land, they sent twelve spies into Canaan. That reference lists the evidences which the returned spies displayed in the Israelite camp. Curiously, the verse tells us that the spies brought back: "a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it between two upon a staff; and they brought of the pomegranates, and of the figs." So it seems that they were particularly concerned to return bearing with them samples of the symbols of each portion of Israel!

The New Bible Commentary mentions that as the High Priest wore only the linen garments in the Holiest of all, the bells were heard when he offered the prayers of the people at the altar of incense. "As they heard the bells the people outside could join their prayers with those of their representative within the sanctuary." These were actual bells, not spherical balls, Keil and Delitzsch explain, noting the aspect of "striking" found in the Hebrew. This I take to mean the movement of an independent hammer, as a bell tongue or clapper.

While various holy aspects of this arrangement are doubtless intended and symbolised, it occurs to me that the actual appearance of the Divine Presence, forcibly breaking in, so to speak, with great power upon Creation's concourse of time and space at a particular point in that time-space continuum, just might result in producing, (perhaps as a sort of side-effect), the manifestation of some extra-ordinary physical phenomena. Angelic beings, when appearing to Godly folk frequently aroused a notable degree of fear. Indeed Scripture mentions on a number of such occasions that angels have consequently begun their communication with some such assuring words as "fear not", or "be not afraid."

Let us confirm that observation from Scripture. In Genesis 15:1 God appeared to Abram, saying "fear not" and in Genesis 26:24, He likewise appeared to Isaac with the same words. At the Burning Bush, in Exodus 3:6, Moses "hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." In Exodus 20:20, with God present upon Mount Sinai, Moses had to tell the fearful people drawing back from the mountain to "Fear not", a fact of which Moses reminds them in Deuteronomy 5:5. Hebrews 12:21, indeed, reports that on the same occasion, Moses himself said "I exceedingly fear and quake."

In Judges 6:22-23, Gideon, upon seeing proof that an angel had indeed addressed him, said "Alas, O Lord GOD! for because I have seen an angel of the LORD face to face. And the LORD said unto him, Peace be unto thee; fear not: thou shalt not die." In Daniel 8:17, the Angel Gabriel approached Daniel and Scripture records "So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face." In Daniel 10 starting at verse 5, Daniel reported his sense of weakness at the appearance of an angelic messenger.

In New Testament times, Zacharias, in Luke 1:10-13, upon hearing from the angel of the forthcoming birth of his son, John the Baptist, "was troubled, and fear fell upon him. But the angel said unto him Fear not Zacharias..." In Luke 1:30, at The Annunciation, Mary "was troubled" at the opening words, so Gabriel assured her, saying "fear not, Mary." In Luke 2:9-10, the shepherds, who were keeping watch over their flock by night when the angel came upon them and the glory of the Lord shone round about them, "were sore afraid" so the first angelic words were, once again, "Fear not..." In Matthew 17:6, when Peter, James and John heard the voice out of the bright cloud at the Transfiguration of Jesus, "they fell on their face, and were sore afraid", a fact which is confirmed in Mark 9:6. In Matthew 28:2-8, the account of the angel rolling away the stone from the entrance to the empty tomb where Christ's body had been laid, we read that "His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow: and for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men. And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here: for he is risen, as he said." Mark 16:6 and Luke 24:5 witness to the same report. In Luke 24:37, the disciples were "terrified and affrighted" as Jesus appeared and stood in their midst. In Acts 10:4, an angel approached Cornelius, who, upon seeing him, "was afraid." As the Lord appeared to Saul on the Damascus road, in Acts 22:7-9, those accompanying Saul "saw the light, and were afraid" while Saul himself "fell to the ground." In Revelation 1:17, upon seeing the glorified Christ, John "fell at his feet as dead." John wrote "And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not." From all these occurrences, we may draw the conclusion that some most powerful and potentially dangerous phenomena were present at the times of such visitations. The near proximity of a being incorporating and controlling such intense radiance, glory and power is obviously never to be taken as a trifling matter!

We know that God ordered that the High Priest's garments must be prepared with particular attention to strict details, and must always be worn when in the vicinity of that Divine Presence.

As gold threads were woven, seamless, through the Ephod, to which was bound the gold breastplate by gold links, the gold bells which were attached at the hem might, in the dry desert air, in addition to their obvious spiritual symbolism, have served somehow to dissipate a possible accumulation of a high electrical potential about the robes of the High Priest. Further, there might also have been some effects of an electrical nature in close proximity to the Mercy Seat itself, simply, if for no other reason, due to its pattern of construction alone, because gold sheets sandwiched the acacia-wood boards of the Ark. Thus certain effects like those of a capacitor might possibly have accumulated in such a design. A widely used Dictionary of Electronics defines a capacitor as "A device consisting essentially of two conducting surfaces separated by an insulating material or dielectric such as air, paper, mica, glass, plastic film, or oil. A capacitor stores electrical energy..." Perhaps an electric charge might have brought on that death which, as verse 35 explains, threatened a priest not so garbed!

The Encyclopaedia Judaica, item "Priestly Vestments" states "Shoes are not included among the priestly vestments and the priests evidently ministered barefoot, as was obligatory in a holy place...". Remembering that when Moses approached the Burning Bush in Exodus 3:5 he was at once told "Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground", (a scripture thought worthy to be repeated by Stephen in his defence, in Acts 7:33), and that in Joshua 5:15, Joshua, in the presence of the "captain of the host of the LORD" was similarly ordered to remove his shoe, the fact that no shoes were upon the feet of the High Priest may be significant for this same reason, as this providing a means of grounding any dangerous electric potential.

We ought not to dismiss out of hand the possibility that some such disturbance of phenomena would indeed occur as an accompanying manifestation of the presence of the Glorious Cloud of the Shekinah Radiance. It might, indeed, be amazing if such an insertion of the Majesty of Deity into the normal situation of mankind did NOT involve some interruption of the normal equilibrium of physical phenomena as we are accustomed to observe it.

Conscious that Our LORD is the All Powerful Creator, and that He is to manifest Himself at the Second Advent, these considerations ought to give all, believer and non-believer alike, pause to consider the potential which is promised at His Appearing. We shall leave further considerations for our next study.

30 April, 1995


By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

This series of Bible Studies is tracing God's Great Plan to restore His Creation to accord with His purposes. Our study has taken us from the Call of Abram in Genesis 12, down through the generations of his progeny in Isaac and Jacob (who was re-named Israel). Having moved into Egypt under Joseph's protection to escape famine, a later generation of the children of Israel fell into bondage, and then, by divine miracle, they emerged through the Exodus into the Wilderness of Sinai.

There, at Mount Sinai, the children of Israel were, as we have more recently seen, to become, by divine agreement, the national "wife" of The Almighty God of the whole earth. Israel specifically will henceforth be granted the special privilege of knowing their Divine Husband by the intimate name of "Yahweh" (Jehovah).

The agreement has been made, and the terms pronounced in The Commandments, together with the provision of Sacrifice to accommodate the problem of law-breaking. Now the national portable focus of worship, the Tabernacle, is being described, together with the priesthood which is to serve therein.

Now let us read today's passage which completes the Priestly Robes, starting at verse 36.

36. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
37. And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.

Having regard to the words "HOLINESS TO THE LORD", the Companion Bible notes "This is one of the few places where the A.V. uses large capital letters (see Ap. 48). Here it was worn only on the forehead of the high priest; but in Millennial days it will be worn even on the bells of the horses, Zech. 14.20,21. Cp. Rev. 19.11-14; 14.20" The Appendix 48 mentioned in that note gives the complete list of twenty-five Biblical references in the A.V. which the A.V. shows entirely in capital letters, but adds that the use of such letters in the A.V. "is destitute of any authority, and merely indicates the importance which they (the translators) attached to such words and phrases thus indicated." The "mitre" of verse 37, it notes, equates to "tiara, or turban", as the Hebrew "miznepheth" is "from zanaph, to wind round." The New Bible Dictionary adds that this view comes out of the verb used in Isaiah 22:18 where we find the words "He will surely violently turn and toss thee...". It adds that "Israel's ultimate renewal is symbolized by calling her a royal mitre in the hand of God (Is. lxii.3)." As we of the British-Israel-World Federation see the vast majority of present-day Israelites as those who form the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon world and their kindred, that thought places a great responsibility upon those people, and sets a mark of a very high calling to which they must aspire.

The New Bible Commentary explains further: "The mitre was a distinctive form of turban worn only by the High Priest. As the ephod served chiefly to bear the jewels, so the chief purpose of this head-dress was to carry the plate of gold on Aaron's forehead (37, 38). Crowning all the other garments, it proclaimed that holiness is of the essence of God's nature and is the end and objective of all the worship of priests and people. Even the best offerings were marred by some imperfection either in themselves or in the offerer. This imperfection or iniquity the priest himself bears (38), and secures the people's acceptance by the holy God." Of the word "Always", it adds "i.e. whenever he officiates."

Again we might note the use of the blue colour in the lace, as that is to be a reminder of God's Law. For those who did not hear the former study in which we made mention of the matter, it can be located in Numbers 15:38-39 in which the children of Israel are commanded to make fringes in the borders of their garments, for the purpose "that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye seek not after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go a whoring." Thus we see that the blue colour is to be a reminder of God's Laws, which are obeyed in heaven, and which are, with Christ's return, to be brought into full force within God's Kingdom upon the earth. Our Lord told His followers, in The Lord's Prayer, to pray that Our Father's Kingdom may come, and Our father's Will may be done, on earth as it is in heaven. We again pick up the Scripture passage at verse 38, relating to the gold plate bearing the words HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

38. And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.

The Companion Bible notes of those words "his...they" that Christ is our Representative, we are holy in Him, and this "always." Keil and Delitzsch note of this diadem upon the head-band that the Hebrew connects the name with the root "to shine." The Hebrew words mean Holiness (i.e. all holy) to Jehovah. They indicate that this diadem "was to be placed upon Aaron's forehead, that he 'might bear the iniquity of the holy things which the children of Israel sanctified, with regard to all their holy gifts, .. as an acceptableness for them before Jehovah.' bear iniquity (sin) and take it away; in other words, to exterminate it by taking it upon one's self. The high priest was exalted into an atoning mediator of the whole nation; and an atoning, sin-exterminating intercession was associated with his office. The qualification for this he received from the diadem upon his forehead with the inscription "holiness to the Lord." Through this inscription, which was fastened upon his head-dress of brilliant white, the earthly reflection of holiness, he was crowned as the sanctified of the Lord..., and endowed with the power to exterminate the sin which clung to the holy offerings of the people on account of the unholiness of their nature, so that the gifts of the nation became well-pleasing to the Lord, and the good pleasure of God was manifested to the nation."

39. And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of needlework.
40. And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty.

The Companion Bible indicates that the bonnets are caps. The New Bible Dictionary indicates that these bonnets or caps were worn by the inferior priests. Again, we should remember that the "glory" and "beauty" which describe this regalia are not for the priest, but are rather, to present in symbol the glory and the beauty of God Himself. The New Bible Commentary tells us that "embroider" might better be translated with the RV "weave" for it was all of white linen, perhaps woven like damask. The garment "was a long robe with sleeves and reaching to the feet. It therefore was visible at the arms and below the skirt of the blue robe." The "girdle" it explains as "an inner girdle for this garment (was) made of white linen, with coloured threads not woven into it like the ephod but embroidered upon it." It continues "The ordinary priests wore the simple white tunic and its girdle, probably without any embroidery. Although plain, its pure white simplicity was in itself for glory and for beauty (40)."

41. And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
42. And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach:
43. And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute for ever unto him and his seed after him.

Concerning the matter of the linen breeches or drawers which were to cover the nakedness of the priests, Keil and Delitzsch give approximately a page of attention to a rationalisation of the pertinent considerations. Regarding the use of linen, The Companion Bible notes that the Priests were effendi, and adds these references linking the use of linen clothing with their service: Leviticus 6:10, I Samuel 2:18, and 22:18. That first reference, associated with the burnt offering, says "The priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh..." while gathering the ashes beside the altar, but then he was to exchange these for other garments to carry the ashes outside the camp. The second reference is to the child Samuel, ministering before The LORD girded with a linen ephod. The third is a reference wherein King Saul's order to execute "fourscore and five" priests "persons that did wear a linen ephod" was carried out by the Edomite, Doeg when the Israelite servants of the king refused to carry the order out.

In contrast with the Priests, the effendi, the Prophets were fellahin, and wore coarse clothing. The corresponding references supplied are to 2 Kings 1:8, wherein Elijah the Prophet is described as "an hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins, Zechariah 13:4 which looks forward to a day wherein "...the prophets shall be ashamed every one of his vision, when he hath prophesied; neither shall they wear a rough garment to deceive", and Matthew 3:4 which describes John the Baptist "and the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins...".

The New Bible Commentary (Revised) supplies the summary "The remembrance of God's holiness was the chief characteristic of the Israelites' worship. Aaron was to secure God's acceptance of the people. We ought to keep ever in mind that Jesus Christ was, and is now, the fulfillment of the High Priestly symbolism. With that meditation we shall leave our further studies for the next programme.

7 May, 1995


By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

This ongoing series of Bible Studies began with the Call of Abram, and it has taken us through succeeding Chapters of Genesis and Exodus in company with the expanding numbers of the descendants of the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, (Israel) who have of late been assembled at the foot of Mount Sinai following their Exodus from Egyptian bondage.

Having agreed to a Covenant, the Children of Israel are now granted to know The Almighty God, by the name Yahweh, (Jehovah). He will be their God and, in a sense, their national husband, and He is now speaking to the people through His chosen intermediary, Moses. We had arrived at the stage wherein The Almighty God is imparting to Moses the particulars regarding the creation of a national focus of worship, The Tabernacle, and the Priesthood which is to serve therein.

On the last study, we concluded the examination of the details of the High Priest's robes, and in doing this we sought to demonstrate that the office is set to portray and to manifest in symbolism the yet-future work of Jesus Christ for the nation of His people, the Kingdom of God upon the earth. Today, in Exodus 29, we come to the passages which detail how the Israelitish Priesthood is to be hallowed for induction into office. There is contained herein a series of references to various sacrifices, which are covered in much greater detail in Leviticus.

Indeed, Keil and Delitzsch, when approaching verses 1-37 of this chapter, under the heading "Consecration of Aaron and his sons through the anointing of their persons and the offering of sacrifices, the directions for which form the subject of vers. 1-35", simply make the following statement "This can only be fully understood in connection with the sacrificial law contained in Lev. i.-vii. It will be more advisable therefore to defer the examination of this ceremony till we come to Lev. viii., where the consecration itself is described. The same may also be said of the expiation and anointing of the altar, which are commanded in vers. 36 and 37, and carried out in Lev. viii. 11.

Perhaps, before we actually get to our Scripture passage then, I ought, by way of introduction to read a short passage from the New Bible Commentary under the heading "Ordinances for the consecration of the priests (xxix. 1-37) which concerns this passage. It connects this reference with Leviticus 8, and then says: "The consecration of Aaron and his sons to the priesthood was completed by five symbolic acts: washing (4) to purify; investiture (5-9) to clothe them with their priestly functions; anointing (7) to impart divine grace; sacrifice (10-21) for atonement and dedication; filling the hands (22-28) to invest them with authority to sacrifice. The holy crown (6), i.e. the gold plate of xxviii.36, foreshadowing the royal dignity of our great High Priest."

We will read today's passage starting at Exodus 29:1. I shall, as is the usual pattern, insert my own comments and observations along with the comments and explanatory notes which can be found in a variety of recognized Commentaries and similar sources.

1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young bullock, and two rams without blemish,
2. And unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil, and wafers unleavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour shalt thou make them.
3. And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams.

I might point out that the first three verses have already gathered before us several themes. There is the family of Aaron, which is to be inducted into office, there is a young bullock and also two rams which are described as "unblemished". There are some wheat-cakes which are to contain no leaven, but which are "tempered" with oil and wafers which are to be anointed with oil. What is the symbolism defined herein?

The Companion Bible notes of the words "without blemish" that "This, with bread 'without leaven'" shows the inner meaning of "leaven." Of "cakes", it explains "pierced cakes." Aaron and his sons are to stand at the door of the tabernacle, there to be inducted into their high office. The High Priest will, as we have often reminded our listeners, become a sort of teaching aid and temporary stand-in, to represent the fullness of the work of Jesus Christ as our Great High Priest. The meaning of each of the animals present will be explained as we follow the course of this ceremony, as will that of those cakes and wafers.

4. And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water.
5. And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod:
6. And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre.
7. Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him.
8. And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them.
9. And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

Of "consecrate", The Companion Bible explains, that, as in Exodus 28:1, this means to "instal them", the Hebrew being "fill their hand", which is a way of expressing the authority and power which is given to them.

10. And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the bullock.
11. And thou shalt kill the bullock before the LORD, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
12. And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger, and pour all the blood beside the bottom of the altar.
13. And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar.

The New Bible Commentary (Revised) says "The bull was for the sin offering... One (ram) was for a burnt-offering... and the other was for consecration... The laying on of hands symbolizes the fact that this is no mere donation of the animal to God, but that the worshipper is intimately involved and represented in what happens to the victim which is his substitute... The manipulation of the sacrificial blood... is important. Here it is smeared on the altar to symbolize its Godward significance, i.e. that it satisfies the justice of a holy God upon the sinner by providing proof of life laid down in death, and so meets the need of the sinner in the sight of God. The best and choicest parts of the sacrifice are burned to symbolize Godward devotion to the uttermost.

While Young's Concordance expresses the meaning of the word "caul" in this case as "Diaphragm or midriff" The Companion Bible appears to disagree, noting its meaning as "the omentum, not the midriff." A dictionary yields the meaning of "omentum" as "a fold of peritoneum, proceeding from one of the abdominal viscera to another." The New Bible Dictionary explains of "caul" as used here, "Yoteret. Part of the liver usually associated in burnt offerings with the kidneys" and under the item "liver" it further explains "The 'caul above or from the liver'... always associated with the kidneys, was burned on the altar. Josephus lists the parts burned on the altar (Ant. iii. 9. 2) 'the kidneys, and the caul, and all the fat, and the lobe of the liver'. It is, however, unlikely that the 'caul', yoteret, refers to a lobe of the liver, but probably to fat upon it, or possibly the pancreas. The word literally means 'remainder' or 'appendage', so it is not stated specifically that the liver itself was burned on the altar, but the internal fat and the kidneys. From Ezekiel (xxi.21) it appears that the liver was the material for a form of divination, based on the internal markings of the liver. Many artificial livers of clay have been unearthed in the Middle East, and were made for this purpose. A similar practice was known among the Etruscans, from whom it passed to the Romans..." I might add the thought that, if the liver was burned, it would thus eliminate that source of divination among God's people. Also, as the Etruscans held such a practice, this would be evidence of close contact or identity of the Etruscans with those of Israel who may well have later fallen into such use of the liver for divination. There exists other evidence which would indicate that the Etruscans were, indeed, an over-seas branch of one, at least, of the tribes of Israel, having fled there from the fall of Troy.

I might further add one curious point of information regarding those Etruscans which is taken from the entry "Guildhall" in the Michelin Green Guide to London, England. It says: "Guarding the Musicians' Gallery are Gog and Magog - post-war replica giants, each 9ft 3in tall, carved in limewood by David Evans after the figures set up in Guildhall in 1708, themselves descendants of 15 and 16C midsummer pageant figures who were said to have originated in a legendary conflict between ancient Britons and Trojans in 1 000 BC."

We, of the British-Israel-World Federation are, naturally, not surprised to discover such indications of tribal linkage between the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of today and those of the ancient Middle East. We believe that discovery of our identity with ancient Israel will provide an interest in implementing Biblical Law in such matters as the Law of Release of all debts every seven years, and the Law of Jubilee every fiftieth year. Even the observance of these laws alone could totally remedy all the problems of national debts which plague our peoples, and that is something well worth considering. The Almighty God has blessings in store for those who nationally implement His Commandments! We shall continue our studies next week.