BIBLE STUDY SERIES #191, 192 and 193

16 July, 1995


By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

We are tracing God's Great Plan for the renewal of His Creation after The Fall of Adam. The Bible tells of the human line of descent used by The Almighty in the setting forward of that Plan. Our present series of Bible Studies has brought us from the Call of Abram in Genesis 12 to the foot of Mount Sinai alongside the descendants of Abraham through Isaac and Jacob (Israel). Here, while the Israelite Tribes encamped below, Moses has been the intermediary receiving God's instructions and the offer of what amounts to a National Marriage Contract.

We have presently reached Exodus Chapter 32, a passage which I believe contains some valuable lessons for us today. How quickly and impatiently we are prone to turn from our commitments and God's promises, and accept a human substitute. Although even our impatience may be viewed ultimately as a part of God's unfolding Great Plan, the resulting progression is, from our standpoint, often less than the ideal which would have been possible, had we waited.

Abram and Sarai had not waited for God's fulfilment of the promise of seed, which was to be Isaac, when they arranged that Sarai's handmaid, Hagar, supply the child called Ishmael. Rebekah and Jacob had not waited for God's promise to her that her elder son, Esau would serve Jacob, but moved ahead with a premature substitute plan to gain the blessing by deceiving Isaac. That act created hatred which caused Jacob to depart, never to see his mother again.

King Saul also, in a later day, allowed the disaster of impatience to intervene in I Samuel 13:8-14 when the Prophet Samuel appointed a set time when he would come to offer the nation's sacrifice, but the King, impatient and apprehensive of the consequences of delay in face of the Philistine threat, transgressed by offering his own sacrifice. Indeed Moses himself would transgress later in impatiently striking the same rock a second time as he had at Horeb to procure water for the people at Kadesh. The result was that Moses was forbidden to enter the Promised Land for he had broken the relationship of Antitype to Type in the Person of Christ, the source of "Living Water." Today, we are reading the first portion of the passage found in Exodus 32, a Scripture in which the impatience of God's people plays a central part. I shall add comments from various authorities, along with my own as we proceed.

1. And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.

The non-Biblical Book of Jasher, Chapter 82:12-14 puts the matter in these words: "And when the children of Israel saw that Moses tarried to come down from the mount, they gathered round Aaron, and said, as for this man Moses we know not what has become of him. Now therefore rise up, make unto us a god who shall go before us, so that thou shalt not die. And Aaron was greatly afraid of the people, and he ordered them to bring him gold and he made it into a molten calf for the people." That entry is consistent with, but amplifies, Exodus 32:21-22 which we shall be reading soon. We must remember that Aaron is elder brother to Moses and is thus above eighty years of age. He was at this point, according to the Jasher account, quite terrified by the restless crowd, and he obviously sensed that he lacked Moses' authority to do anything in opposition to the mob. Shepherds of God's Flock today may cave-in to similar pressures if they are not fully committed to their task.

On the words "make us gods" in this verse, The Companion Bible comments "The great sin of to-day (I Cor. 10.7,11). Made now not of materials; but made by imagination; and worshipped by the senses." In I Corinthians 7, Paul commands "Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play" and in verse 11 he writes "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come." This, we understand, refers to the time which spans from Christ's Ascension to the Second Advent, so the Old Testament account which we are studying holds very pertinent instruction for ourselves even at this present hour.

2. And Aaron said unto them, Break off the golden earrings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me.
3. And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron.

The Companion Bible explains that the words "all the people" mean "the greater part." As this scripture later reveals, not all were involved.

4. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
5. And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, To morrow is a feast to the LORD.
6. And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.
7. And the LORD said unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves:
8. They have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed thereunto, and said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.

The New Bible Dictionary, item concerning The Golden Calf contains over half a page of useful notes from which I would like to quote some passages. It says of this: "The golden image made after the Exodus by Aaron and the Israelites at Sinai while Moses was in the mountain. On finding that they were idolatrously worshipping it as God with sacrifices, feasting, and revelry, Moses destroyed it." Citing references in Deuteronomy 9:16 and 21; Nehemiah 9:18; Psalm 106:19 and 20 and Acts 7:41, the item continues: "This idol is sometimes thought to be the Egyptian Apis-bull of Memphis ... or the Mnevis bull of Heliopolis, but these are too far away from Goshen to have been really familiar to the Hebrews. In fact, there were several not dissimilar bull-cults in the East Delta, much closer to the Hebrews in Goshen, which they could have aped later at Sinai. To the south-west of Goshen (Tumilat-area...) in the 10th Lower Egyptian nome or province, called 'the Black Bull', there was an amalgam of Horus-worship and bull- or calf-cult; farther north and extending along the north-west of Goshen itself, the 11th Lower Egyptian nome also possessed a bull-cult linked with Horus-worship; other traces are known. ... In Egypt the bull or calf was symbol of fertility in nature, and of physical strength..., and, as elsewhere in the Near East, could even perhaps have had links with the worship of the host of heaven. ... In nearby Canaan, however, the bull or calf was the animal of Baal or Hadad, god(s) of storm, fertility, and vegetation, and, as in Egypt, symbolized fertility and strength. Bearing in mind the close links between Canaan and the Egyptian East Delta... and the presence of many Semites in the Delta besides the Israelites, it is possible to view the idolatry at Sinai as a blending of contemporary, popular bull- and calf-cults, Egyptian and Canaanite alike, with their emphasis on natural strength and fertility."

I might interject my own comment at this point. There is some evidence that some of Israel's descendants, particularly of the Tribes of Dan and Zarah-Judah, may well have chosen to emigrate to other lands before the period of bondage became severe. While many of Israel probably remained in Goshen prior to their Exodus, and through a number of generations might have begun to absorb some cultural infusion from the immediate neighbourhood of Goshen, not all of Israel need have been so influenced. Also, Joseph had been Prime Minister over the whole land, and Moses had been brought up as a Pharaonic Prince. Surely, then, knowledge of the more distant religious inclinations as well as those locally observed would not be unknown to at least some portions of Israel. Returning to The New Bible Dictionary excerpt, we continue:

"In any case, it represented a reduction of the God of Israel... to the status of an amoral... nature-god like those of the surrounding nations, and meant that He could then all too easily be identified with the Baals. This God rejected, refusing to be identified with the god of the calf, hence condemning it as the worship of an 'other' god, and therefore idolatry... .

At the division of the Hebrew kingdom, Israel's first king, Jeroboam I, wishing to counteract the great attraction of the Temple at Jerusalem in Judah, set up two golden calves, in Bethel and Dan, to be centres of Israel's worship of Yahweh... . In Syria-Palestine the gods Baal or Hadad were commonly thought of (and shown) as standing upon a bull or calf, emblem of their powers of fertility and strength..., and Jeroboam's action had the same disastrous implications as Aaron's golden calf: the reduction of Yahweh to a nature-god, and His subsequent identification with the Baals of Canaan. With this would go a shift in emphasis from righteousness, justice, and an exemplary moral standard to purely physical and material considerations, sliding easily into immorality with a religious backing, with social disintegration, and total loss of any sense of the divinely appointed mission of the chosen people in a darkened world. All this was bound up in the idolatry that was 'the sin of Jeroboam, son of Nebat'.

Jehu (2 Ki. x. 29) removed the more obvious and explicit Baal-worship in Israel, but not the calves of a Baalized Yahweh. Hosea (viii. 5,6, xiii. 2) prophesied the coming end of such 'worship'."

We must close, but I will leave with you the meditation that, like Israel of old, we have similar tendencies towards false religious influences which seem for the moment to be "politically correct", and, like them, we need the Almighty to be Our Saviour and Redeemer. As the Great Plan unfolds, we shall see how this takes form, and how we, today, especially of the Anglo-Celto-Saxon lands are involved.

23 July, 1995


By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our ongoing series of Bible Studies, which began with God's Call to Abram, is unfolding some aspects of God's Great Plan for the reformation of His Creation. We have followed the course of that Plan as God formed of Abraham's descendants a line which became the nation, called Israel, which was drawn into Egypt, then in a later generation, passed out from that land of bondage through the Exodus to Mount Sinai.

We had read to Exodus 32:9, a passage which reveals that, while Moses was meeting with Yahweh, (Jehovah), their God, Israel, encamped below, had waited with growing restlessness these last forty days, and then as Moses had not returned some had demanded that Aaron make them a god, The Golden Calf, to lead them. Moses, with the Tablets of The Commandments in hand, is ordered back to the camp by The Almighty, there to confront the rebellious idolaters among the people. We now pick up the story at this point.

9. And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people:
10. Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation.

The New Bible Commentary (Revised), relative to the first ten verses of this chapter, and under the heading "The apostasy of the golden calf" says "Their only complaint is Moses' failure to reappear, although they had sent him to the mount to hearken to their God on their behalf. Scarcely six weeks have passed before the people thus blessed are clamouring, at the very foot of Sinai, for a replica of the gods they saw worshipped in Egypt. Moses, not God, is referred to as the one who brought them out of Egypt. Aaron gives way (cf. Pr. 25:26) and idolatry and polytheism follow at the foot of the mount from which the commandments were given." That verse in Proverbs reads "A righteous man falling down before the wicked is as a troubled fountain, and a corrupt spring."

We continue with the Commentary excerpt: "4 The calf that Aaron makes is a throwback to life in Egypt. There living animals were regarded as sacred, and gods were represented as having animal heads and even animal bodies as well. Hence the cult of the bull, Apis, later called Serapis.

5, 6 Aaron adds to the people's sin by building an altar and holding a feast to God who is to be worshipped under the guise of this calf. In Egypt they had lapsed into idolatry (cf. Lv. 17:7; Jos. 24:14; Ezk. 20:8), and now an air of sanctity is given by the high priest to their identification of Yahweh with these monster-gods. The outcome of such worship was not true holiness but the play, or orgiastic dance, which characterized pagan religions (cf. I Cor. 10:6ff.).

7-10 Your people; seeing what they have done, God cannot refer to them as His in any real sense of the truth. They have turned aside quickly, and speedily would God avenge His name and justly pour out His wrath upon them. Even though the emergency has arisen, God's purpose will not be overthrown. Just as God began with Noah after the judgment of the Flood, so will He begin with Moses.

32:11-33:23 Interceding and purging
Moses is instantly moved to intercede. None of God's servants has ever sat idly back and failed to seek a stay of judgment or to urge the people to repent. Cf. e.g. Gn. 18:22ff.; Am(os). 7:1-3. This does not mean that they contend with God against His justice, but they cry, 'In wrath remember mercy' (Heb. 3:2)." The Genesis reference is to Abraham's pleading regarding any righteous remaining in Sodom. In the Amos reference that prophet pleads for Israel under threat of God's judgments, and the Hebrews reference speaks of Christ Jesus saying "Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house."

11. And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said, LORD, why doth thy wrath wax hot against thy people, which thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power, and with a mighty hand?

At verse 11, The Companion Bible says of "Thy...Thou" that "This is the reply of Moses. He knows they were not 'cast off' (Rom. 11.2.), but only 'cast aside' (Rom. 11.15.) for a little moment."

12. Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, and say, For mischief did he bring them out, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against thy people.
13. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and saidst unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.

Here The Companion Bible says "Israel. Not Jacob, because this is the language of highest faith."

14. And the LORD repented of the evil which he thought to do unto his people.

The New Bible Commentary (Revised) says of 32:11-14, Moses' prayer: "11 He refers to thy people, and the basis of his intercession and the ground of his hope is the honour of God (cf. Je. 14:8, 9, 19-22; Dn. 9:17ff.)." (In these, the prophets similarly plead for the people.) The Commentary continues: "He uses three arguments in prayer, on his settled conviction that God is a 'jealous' God. God's jealousy is His zeal for His own glory in His people, on account of which He will neither break His promises nor fail to execute His threats. Moses reminds God of what He has done; 12 of what His foes will say if He exterminates His people now; 13 that He has given promises to the forbears of these people which must be kept, 14 Repented; God does not need to repent as men do, for He does not err, nor is He baffled or overcome. but when He is said (by an anthropomorphic description) to repent, He changes not His purposes, but a course of events previously threatened, because the altered conduct of His people no longer calls forth what He had originally promised. It is a change in His dealings with people, not a change in His character or His purposes."

15. And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written.
16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.
17. And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said unto Moses, There is a noise of war in the camp.
18. And he said, It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome: but the noise of them that sing do I hear.
19. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount.
20. And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.
21. And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them?
22. And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that they are set on mischief.
23. For they said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us: for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.
24. And I said unto them, Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.
25. And when Moses saw that the people were naked; (for Aaron had made them naked unto their shame among their enemies:)
26. Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is on the LORD'S side? let him come unto me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him.
27. And he said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.
28. And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men.
29. For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves to day to the LORD, even every man upon his son, and upon his brother; that he may bestow upon you a blessing this day.

The New Bible Commentary (Revised) states of 32:15-29 "The people are punished. Though wrath may not be outpoured, sin is not excused or overlooked. Moses meets Joshua (cf. 24:13) and they return to the camp together, with the tablets of the law. The law is shattered by Moses to illustrate to the people the meaning of their apostasy. His anger is not a fit of temper but the upsurge of righteous indignation. God will feed Israel, but Israel is made to feed upon the work of her own hands by way of judgment, and so it is with God's judgment of false religion in every age. When people must drink water fouled by their own religious leaders, God will judge them (cf. Ezk. 34:12ff.). Aaron's self-excusing is pathetic, as indeed is every attempt to exonerate oneself from sin. The people are blamed, but the calf allegedly made itself! Aaron should have stood against them. The people must be purged, and those who are on the Lord's side must do this. 16 The work of God is divinely revealed and recorded, and therefore possesses His authority, abiding reliability and truth. 21 Moses discerns that the people were the source of this evil, but he does not underestimate the responsibility of Aaron in giving way to them and of bringing guilt upon them by not opposing their wicked desires. 24 Aaron's excuses reveal his weakness before both the people and Moses. 25, 26 When restraints are removed, not only do the people suffer, but God's honour is corrupted, and consequently the people must be purged. 27 The Levites take up Moses' call and execute those who have worshipped the idol calf. 29 For this, they are rewarded with the priesthood. Cf. Nu. 25:10-13."

Our time has gone for today, but there is more which could be said on this topic, and I shall leave some of that for our next programme. Let us keep in mind the One, even greater than Moses, to Whose Intercession on our behalf that of Moses was pointing prophetically forward. We shall continue next week.

30 July, 1995


By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

When The Almighty designed His Universe, He desired a freewill interaction of love with His creatures. That relationship was broken in The Garden of Eden, as was foreseen by The omniscient Creator. For this reason there was planned from the foundation of the world, the provision of a Divine Saviour and Redeemer. Fallen mankind was otherwise helpless to re-establish the broken relationship. A human line of descent was required in order to establish the setting within which the rescue would take place. The Cross was the solution to the human condition which would permit re-establishment of that relationship that had been destroyed.

Our ongoing series of Bible Studies, which began with God's Call to Abram, is unfolding aspects of God's Great Plan for the reformation of His Creation. That Plan required as its central act the insertion into history of a Divine Rescue by The Incarnate Expression of The Almighty Himself, in Jesus Christ, Who is at His First Advent the Suffering Servant, Substitute for saved sinners, Redeemer of His National "Wife", Israel, and, at His Second Advent, King of the Kingdom of Heaven which thereby extends throughout the entire Universe.

We have followed the Plan as God formed of Abraham's descendants a line which became the nation, called Israel. This nation was cultivated in the seed-bed of Egyptian bondage and transferred through the Exodus to Sinai where The Almighty met with them and their leader, Moses, and there transformed the nation, by covenant, to become, in fact, His national "wife." Later, upon entry to Canaan, they further developed but upon sinning, This nation split, and the two parts, first the larger, then the smaller, were taken captive by enemies. God's promises, however are not capable of being thwarted, and we of the British-Israel-World Federation see the majority of their descendants as chiefly formed today of the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the earth who are yet to fulfill their destiny under His Hand.

In Part I of this particular topic, that of Intercession, we read from our Scripture passage in Exodus 32 that The Almighty had given to Moses two tablets upon which The Almighty Himself had written His Commandments, but then God had told Moses to "Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves." Moses, even before he began his descent down the slopes of Mount Sinai, immediately made intercession before The LORD, for indeed they had. Having waited forty days for the return of Moses, they had grown impatient and so had forced Aaron to create a golden calf, thus emulating the worship of deities of the surrounding nations, and had therewith proclaimed "These be thy gods, O Israel."

Upon returning down the slopes of the Mount, Moses had thrown down and broken the tablets containing those commandments. By this symbolic act Moses had indicated that these Israelites had broken their part of the covenant relationship so recently entered by the nation. Moses thereupon destroyed the golden calf image by burning and grinding it to powder, which he then sprinkled upon the water which the Israelites had to drink. In view of the burning reported in verse 20, some commentaries suggest that this golden calf was actually an image of which the core was made of wood, which had then been overlaid with gold. Such an arrangement seems probable when we look at other archaeological finds from those times.

Moses then called for the eradication of those who had done this thing, for they had brought the wrath of God down upon the nation. The sons of Levi, swords drawn, had then proceeded to execute those who were primarily involved in this sin.

The act of Moses in verse 20 may at first seem somewhat odd although most people will see it as somehow making the sinners among the Israelites "drink their own sin", or "eat their god." There is, more to it, of course. Why was this method of associating the sin with water chosen? It might be of interest, in connection with that water supply, to mention that there are several symbolic points to consider. In Exodus 17:6 we read an account of the complaint of the Israelites over a lack of water at Horeb, and of the response of The Almighty to Moses' appeal. In that verse Yahweh says "Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink..."

The New Bible Dictionary, item "Sinai" tells us that "Mount Sinai is also called Horeb in the Old Testament." So that Scripture, in fact, is telling us that the water supply which these Israelites were then given at Horeb when Moses struck the rock, and upon which both they and their animals must subsequently rely while in the vicinity of Mount Sinai, was to be provided by a certain smitten rock.

In I Corinthians 10:4, Paul explains to the Corinthians that their Israelitish ancestors "...did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ." Indeed, for two connected reasons it really was a "Christ Rock" both literally and spiritually, which yielded water to Israel at Horeb. A few facts must here be introduced as background, in order to understand what happened.

First, if the translators of that passage had translated the word "Christ" which was used by Paul, instead of leaving it in the original Greek, the words would simply have read, in English, "and that rock was anointed." Now what rock, having a specific connection with The Almighty, and venerated by Israel, had been especially anointed? There is only one that comes to mind. It is, of course, the rock upon which Jacob (Israel) had rested his head when he slept and saw the vision of the ladder reaching to heaven with angels ascending and descending upon it and Yahweh standing above it. It was the stone called "Bethel", a name which means "House of God." You may recall that, upon awakening, Jacob had anointed this rock with oil in Genesis 28:18 so it was indeed correct to call this stone "anointed rock" or "Christ rock" both from the fact that the Patriarch had anointed the physical stone with oil, and because Yahweh had both stood above Bethel in Jacob's vision, and had, again at Horeb, stood in actuality, hidden by fire and cloud, upon the anointed rock to confirm His identification therewith as we have just seen, in Exodus 17:6, and thus to be the true source of the water which was to save the thirsty nation of Israel.

Now there is something more in this event. the name Yahweh means "I AM"; or "The Eternal One", a name which Jesus Christ claimed for Himself in John 8:58. So The LORD, (the pre-incarnate Christ) had stood upon the physical "Anointed Rock", Jacob's Bethel Stone, in identification therewith, and there issued water from the rock for the people. This formed a prophetic anti-type to type fore-view of the New Testament sequel; the occasion wherein Jesus Christ, in John 4, tells the woman of Samaria, as He sits upon Jacob's Well, that He is the source of living water. On that occasion, you may remember, Christ had spoken thus:

10. Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.
11. The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water?
12. Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle?
13. Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again:
14. But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.
15. The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw.

"Curiously, just as Jacob had left "The Stone of Israel" (the Bethel Stone) in Joseph's care in Genesis 49:24, Jacob's Well is located at Sychar, "near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph" (John 4:4-5). Even in that detail, the anti-type matches type!

Living water is active, running water, capable of cleansing that which is immersed therein. However, as the ashes of the false god were thus immersed by Moses in the water which came from The Almighty through the rock that was struck, water which the Israelites were forced to drink, so we later find a parallel in Numbers 5:11-31. There we read of the law concerning trial of a woman accused of adultery. The dust of the temple floor, mixed with water by the priest, was to be drunk by the accused, and this would either leave her healthy and exonerated or diseased and guilty. Thus was the national wife of Yahweh judged by the ashen evidence mingled in the water from the Bethel Stone, on this occasion as Israel was forced to drink!

Incidentally, there is reported a sequel to this form of judgment by temple dust, when, in John 8:3-6, Jesus Christ was approached in the Temple by those who had taken a woman in the act of adultery. They demanded that He pass judgment, but, as we read in the next verse, "... Jesus stooped down, and with His finger wrote on the ground, as though He heard them not." Now why did He do this? It was, in fact, the practical application of that Law in Numbers 5, for He was the true High Priest and, after He had written, it is quite apparent that this temple dust bore her accusation and consequent judgment, should two or three of these witnesses persist in accusing her! In all details we thus find The Holy Scriptures to be coherent and consistent. With that thought for our meditation I shall leave further considerations for our next broadcast.