BIBLE STUDY SERIES #272, 273 and 274

2 February, 1997

THE DAY OF ATONEMENT - PART II

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our ongoing series of Bible Studies has brought us forward from God's Call to Abram in Genesis 12, down the generations of his progeny to their encampment before Mount Sinai, where Moses is receiving, and relaying to them the Commandments and instructions of The Almighty God, Yahweh or Jehovah, their national husband. We are presently studying those instructions in Leviticus 16, which relate to a most important observance called "The Day of Atonement." On our last study, we had begun to examine the contents of this chapter, and we had discovered that useful commentary notes relating to it tend to divide the passage into six portions of which only a part of the first has now been read and examined. This brings us today to Leviticus 16:3

3. Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering.
4. He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.
5. And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering.
6. And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house.
7. And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
8. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for the scapegoat.
9. And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the LORD'S lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering.
10. But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness.

We may now the better appreciate what the note in The New Bible Commentary has to tell us concerning these first ten verses of Leviticus 16. Under the sub-heading "a. Aaron's preparation (xvi. 1-10)", it says: "'Speak unto Aaron thy brother (2). Cf. Ex. xxviii. 1ff. It seems clear that the choice of Aaron for this high office was primarily due to his relationship to Moses (Ex. iv. 14) as was his choice to be Moses' 'prophet'. It was Moses' intercession which saved Aaron after the sin of the golden calf (Dt. ix. 20). The Bible both recognizes (Gn. xxi. 13) and ignores human relationships (Ex. xxxii. 27). Since Aaron and his sons have been mentioned already about sixty times in Leviticus, the words 'Aaron thy brother' may suggest the loving care with which Moses is to impress this law upon him, 'that he die not' (2). But cf. Ex. xxviii. 1-4. It is this fact which made the attitude of Aaron and Miriam described in Nu. xii. 1f. such a personal grief to Moses as well as so serious a challenge to the unique position assigned him by God Himself. 'The holy place' (2) means the holy of holies as is indicated by the words 'within the vail' (2; cf. verses 3, 16, 17, 20, 27). Every one of the sacrifices described or ordered in chapters i-xv is included in this prohibition. Most of the ritual of sacrifices was conducted in the court. Only exceptionally was the blood of the sacrifices brought into the holy place. Now the one occasion on which it may be brought 'within the vail' and into the holy of holies is dealt with in careful detail. When he does this, Aaron is to wash himself and then put on linen garments (the symbol of purity) instead of the usual ornate apparel distinctive of the High Priest. The sacrifices he is to offer are of two kinds: for himself and his sons, a young bullock for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering; for the people, two he-goats for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering. Verses 6-10 give a brief and partial summary of the procedure as regards the sin offerings. The bullock and the goats are both presented before the Lord and the lot is cast over the two goats."

11. And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin offering which is for himself:
12. And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail:
13. And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not:
14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.

Under the sub-heading "b. The sin offering for the priests (xvi. 11-14)" The New Bible Commentary states: "These verses describe the ritual for Aaron's bullock which is presented before the Lord. 'And shall make an atonement for himself, and for his house' (11) apparently refers to the laying on of hands, either by himself alone as representing also his sons, or by his sons also. He is to fill the entire censer (lit. 'the fullness of the censer') with coals from the altar of burnt offering and to take two handfuls (lit. 'the fulness of his (two) hands') of incense. There is to be a great cloud of incense sufficient to cover the mercy seat 'that he die not' (13). The blood is to be sprinkled with his finger upon the front of the mercy seat and before it, seven times."

15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat:
16. And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their uncleanness.
17. And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.
18. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the LORD, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about.
19. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel.

To these verses, and under the sub-heading "c. The people's sin offering (xvi. 15-19)" The New Bible Commentary makes these comments: "The ritual for the goat which is the sin offering of the people is now described. Apparently the cloud of incense in the holy of holies suffices for both sin offerings; and the blood is to be similarly manipulated. The reason for this is stated with great care. Aaron is to 'make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, even all their sins' (16, RV). For their sins have defiled it. Note that this cleansing is to include the entire tent of meeting and the altar of burnt offering (20)."

20. And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat:
21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness:
22. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.

To this passage, under the sub-heading "d. The scapegoat (xvi. 20-22)" The New Bible Commentary says: "The live goat (20) has already been referred to in verses 8-10. The AV rendering 'scapegoat' and the RV rendering 'Azazel' in verses 8 and 10 represent the principal interpretations of the meaning of this remarkable ritual. The former rendering is an ancient one, being supported by the LXX and the Vulg. It is based on the assumption that the word 'azazel' comes from a root 'azal' meaning 'to remove' (such a reduplicated form would be rare, but not without analogy). The chief argument in its favour is that it is scriptural and appropriate. The thought of removal of guilt is closely related to that of atonement for sin. Ps. ciii. 12, 'As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us', perfectly expresses this idea. That this is the meaning is indicated by the emphasis which is placed on the words 'send away' or 'let go' (10, 21, 22), 'wilderness' (10, 21, 22) and 'not inhabited' (22; RV 'solitary land'). The rendering 'Azazel' takes the word as a proper name. In its favour is the fact that 'for Azazel' (10) seems to stand in contrast with 'for the Lord' (9). But if it is the name of a well-known demon of the desert or a name of Satan, it is strange that it should occur only here in the entire Bible. And if the reference is to a demon whom Israel feared, who exerted a powerful influence upon them and needed to be appeased, it is hard to understand why emphasis should be place on the remoteness of the abode of this menacing being, a remoteness which might increase as Israel journeyed to Palestine. Sin is not a remote but an ever-present factor in the life of man (Gn. iv. 7). Furthermore the idea of atonement for sin as involving a ransom or sin offering to Satan, or to an unknown demon of the desert (and still more the idea of the goat bearing to the demon the tidings that atonement for sin has been made), seems improbable to say the least. Cf. xvii. 7 which forbids any such recognition of satyrs or of demon worship. It may be too much to say that this explanation is 'quite untenable'; but it seems to involve far more serious difficulties than does the other."

Our time has gone for today, so let me leave this thought with you : This chapter is counter-pointed in the Book of Hebrews, and points directly to the work of Jesus Christ. Most of the descendants of ancient Israel are, we maintain, to be found today among the Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the world, and to them especially these passages ought to be most meaningful.

9 February, 1997

THE DAY OF ATONEMENT - PART III

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our ongoing series of Bible Studies has brought us forward from God's Call to Abram in Genesis 12, down the generations of his progeny to their encampment before Mount Sinai, where Moses is receiving and relaying to them the Commandments and instructions of The Almighty God, Yahweh or Jehovah, their national husband. We are presently studying those instructions in Leviticus 16, which relate to a most important observance called "The Day of Atonement." On our last two studies we had begun to examine the contents of this chapter, and we had discovered that useful commentary notes relating to it tend to divide the passage into six portions of which only the first four parts have presently been read and examined. This brings us to Leviticus 16:23-28, the next passage, which we will now read and upon which we will make comments.

23. And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the holy place, and shall leave them there:
24. And he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and put on his garments, and come forth, and offer his burnt offering, and the burnt offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people.
25. And the fat of the sin offering shall he burn upon the altar.
26. And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp.
27. And the bullock for the sin offering, and the goat for the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung.
28. And he that burneth them shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp.

The New Bible Commentary, under the sub-heading "e. The offerings completed (xvi. 23-28)" makes these statements: "After Aaron has performed those duties which require him to enter the holy of holies, he is to lay aside his linen garments, bathe, and then put on the regular garb of the High Priest, which is so fully described elsewhere, and which is stated to be 'for glory and for beauty' (Ex. xxviii. 2). Then he is to come forth from the holy place and complete the ritual in the outer court, the offering of his burnt offering and that for the people, also to burn the fat of the sin offering since it is only the manipulation of the blood which has thus far been described. This is to be done in the usual manner."

29. And this shall be a statute for ever unto you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you:
30. For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before the LORD.
31. It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.
32. And the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the priest's office in his father's stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, even the holy garments:
33. And he shall make an atonement for the holy sanctuary, and he shall make an atonement for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar, and he shall make an atonement for the priests, and for all the people of the congregation.
34. And this shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year. And he did as the LORD commanded Moses.

Finally, The New Bible Commentary, under the sub-heading "f. Some further instructions (xvi. 29-34)" makes these comments: "This special day is to be 'a statute for ever (29). The rite is to be observed 'once a year' (34) on the tenth day of the seventh month, and it is to be comprehensive, for the sanctuary and the priests who minister there and for the children of Israel, 'for all their sins' (34). In verse 29, for the first time in Leviticus, the stranger (ger) is mentioned. (See Dt. i. 16n.) While he has no part in this national rite, he is to conform to its 'requirements' (cf. Ex. xii. 19, 48f.). The Decalogue and the book of the covenant both recognize and provide for the presence of these 'strangers' in Israel. In view of the privileges which they enjoy they must conform to many of Israel's laws and customs (cf. xvii. 8, 10, 12, 13, 15). Note that we are told that Aaron 'did as the Lord commanded Moses' (34; cf. xxiv. 23). This must mean as stated above, that the national apostasy at Kadesh did not take place until after the first observance of the day of atonement. That it could not have been observed subsequent to the apostasy and during the years of wandering is indicated by three facts. First, exclusion from the land was the punishment for refusal to take possession of it. This penalty was paid in full by the generation which transgressed: it was not remitted. Secondly, circumcision was not practiced during the years of wandering (Jos. v. 1-9), although it was the indispensable sign and seal of the covenant (Gn. xvii. 9-14). Thirdly, Am. v. 25f. indicates that Israel fell away into idolatry during this period (cf. Acts vii. 42f.). In view of the singular importance which attaches to this day - the later Jews have called it 'the Day' ('yoma') - it is remarkable that no express reference to its observance is to be found anywhere in the Old Testament (Is. lviii. 3 is too general to appeal to). This is hard to account for, especially since mention of it would seem to be natural and appropriate in connection with the events described in I Ki. viii. 2, 65f.; Ezr. iii. 1-6; Ne. viii, all of which were important events which took place in the seventh month at about the time of the day of atonement. It is to be noted, however, that the Old Testament mentions only four Passovers (those of Joshua, Hezekiah, Josiah, Ezra) in treating of a period of about 1,000 years; also that from the time of the renewal of the covenant by Joshua no mention is made of the covenant rite of circumcision, except by implication (e.g., the Philistines are described as uncircumcised), or in a figurative sense (Je. vi. 10, ix. 26). The argument from silence, the inference that failure to mention a rite means that it had not yet been introduced, proves too much. It would place the date of the institution of this rite after the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. Furthermore it is to be noted that the sacrifices of this day are the only ones which are directly connected with the ark. The blood of the sin offerings for Aaron and the people was to be sprinkled on or toward the mercy seat. The Hebrew word for mercy seat is kapporeth (covering or expiation). It was pre-eminently the place of atonement. Hence the name, 'yom kippur (day of atonement). Yet Jeremiah definitely foretells the time when the ark will be forgotten (iii. 16); and we know that after the Babylonian captivity the ark was not brought back with the other sacred vessels. There was no ark in Zerubbabel's temple nor in that of Herod. Consequently this connection with the ark points to an early date for the introduction of this rite. It is particularly to be stressed that while, as we have seen, the Old Testament is practically silent with regard to the post-Mosaic celebration of this all-important rite, the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews represents it as that rite of the Mosaic covenant which most clearly sets forth the atoning work of Christ; both by way of resemblance and of contrast (Heb. ix, x). The High Priest alone could enter the holy of holies. He did this 'once every year' (ix. 7), and he offered sacrifices for himself and for the people, and then he came forth from the sanctuary. The Lord Jesus entered 'once' (ix. 12, 26, x. 12-14) into the heavenly sanctuary offering once for all His own blood, not for Himself, but only for the sins of others and, having purchased an eternal redemption by His blood, He will come again from the heavenly sanctuary to bless His saints whom He has redeemed. See also the notes on the significance of the sacrificial ritual at the end of Section I (p. 141) and the Introduction (p. 134f.). Since the destruction of the temple (by Nebuchadnezzar and again by Titus) and the loss of the ark made it quite impossible to carry out fully the ritual of sacrifice, which is the aspect particularly stressed both in this chapter in Leviticus and also in Hebrews, later Jews have been forced to regard 'afflicting their souls' (Lv. xvi. 29, 31), understood to mean repentance, restitution, good works, and suffering, as the only 'atonement' which God requires of the Jew for all his sins. Thus the words, 'without shedding of blood is no remission' (Heb. ix. 22), which epitomizes the meaning of the Old Testament ritual of sacrifice - a ritual which, according to the law, finds its supreme illustration in the day of atonement and, according to the gospel, finds its fulfilment in the cross - become a dead letter to the modern Jew, as they do to the Unitarian, because the cross, of which the mercy seat of the ark is the type, is a stumbling block and a mystery to him."

The thought which repeatedly comes to the fore as we study this chapter 16 of Leviticus is that it is counter-pointed in The Epistle To The Hebrews, and it is a teaching theme like so many others in The Old Testament which points directly forward to the work of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Most of the descendants of ancient Israel are, we continually maintain, to be found today among the Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the world, and to them especially these passages ought to be most meaningful.

16 February, 1997

THE DAY OF ATONEMENT - PART IV

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our ongoing series of Bible Studies has brought us, in successive Scriptural passages, down the generations from God's Call to Abram in Genesis 12, where we began this series several years ago. We have seen how God has led the lives of Isaac, Jacob (Israel), and the descendants of Jacob as they entered Egypt to escape a famine and later emerged from bondage in that land. The tribal nation has of late been assembled at the foot of Mount Sinai, where Moses is receiving and relaying to them the Commandments and instructions of The Almighty God, Yahweh or Jehovah, their national husband.

We have made our way through the Book of Exodus, and are presently studying the Book of Leviticus, and during the last month we have examined Leviticus 16, which tells us of the national obligation of those Israelites to observe, once a year, the Day of Atonement.

As we, of the British-Israel-World Federation continually assert, the present-day descendants of those ancient Israelitish tribes are in the main found under the new designation of Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples, and, although generally unaware of their origins, they none-the-less have, through the centuries, become generally attached to the Christian Faith, which we see as the continuation of the Old Testament prophecies.

We have read both the scripture verses of Leviticus 16, and also sought out some assistance to our better understanding by making use of some commentary notes on the same. We had not sought out the contributions available in Keil and Delitzsch, and so today, partly by way of a summary, I would like to quote some notes by Keil and Delitzsch on the passage. They introduce consideration of Leviticus 16 with these words:

"The sacrifices and purification enjoined thus far did not suffice to complete the reconciliation between the congregation of Israel, which was called to be a holy nation, but in its very nature was still altogether involved in sin and uncleanness, and Jehovah the Holy One, - that is to say, to restore the perfect reconciliation and true vital fellowship of the nation with its God, in accordance with the idea and object of the old covenant, -because, even with the most scrupulous observance of these directions, many sins and defilements would still remain unacknowledged, and therefore without expiation, and would necessarily produce in the congregation a feeling of separation from its God, so that it would be unable to attain to the true joyousness of access to the throne of grace, and to the place of reconciliation with God. This want was met by the appointment of a yearly general and perfect expiation of all the sins and uncleanness which had remained unatoned for and uncleansed in the course of the year. In this respect the laws of sacrifice and purification received their completion and finish in the institution of the festival of atonement, which provided for the congregation of Israel the highest and most comprehensive expiation that was possible under the Old Testament. Hence the law concerning the day of atonement formed a fitting close to the ordinances designed to place the Israelites in fellowship with their God, and raise the promise of Jehovah, "I will be your God," into a living truth. This law is described in the present chapter, and contains (1) the instructions as to the performance of the general expiation for the year (vers. 2-28), and (2) directions for the celebration of this festival every year (vers. 29-34). From the expiation effected upon this day it received the name of "day of expiations," i.e. of the highest expiation (chap. xxiii. 27)."

After explaining that the Rabbins call it briefly "Yom", the day, this reference takes up the more particular aspect of verses 1 and 2, wherein the matter of the deaths of Aaron's two sons is brought forward to show the importance and holiness attached to an entrance into the inmost sanctuary of God. The death of Aaron's sons, as a punishment for wilfully "drawing near before Jehovah," was to be a solemn warning to Aaron himself, "not to come at all times into the holy place within the vail, before the mercy-seat upon the ark," i.e. into the most holy place... but only at the time to be appointed by Jehovah, and for the purposes instituted by Him, i.e., according to vers. 29 sqq., only once a year, on the day of atonement, and only in the manner prescribed in vers. 3 sqq., that he might not die, -"For I will appear in the cloud above the capporeth."

That reference then explains that the cloud is not that of the incense with which Aaron was to cover the capporeth on entering, but the cloud of the divine glory, in which Jehovah manifested His essential presence in the most holy place above the ark of the covenant. They continue: "Because Jehovah appeared in this cloud, not only could no unclean and sinful man go before the capporeth, i.e. approach the holiness of the all-holy God; but even the anointed and sanctified high priest, if he went before it at his own pleasure, or without the expiatory blood of sacrifice, would expose himself to certain death. The reason for this prohibition is to be found in the fact, that the holiness communicated to the priest did not cancel the sin of his nature, but only covered it over for the performance of his official duties, and so long as the law, which produced only the knowledge of sin and not its forgiveness and removal, was not abolished by the complete atonement, the holy God was and remained to mortal and sinful man a consuming fire, before which no one could stand." It is only with the sacrifices, dress, purifications and means of expiation mentioned in subsequent verses that the High Priest could go into "the holy place."

This might, perhaps, be a good point at which to compare the description which Keil and Delitzsch have given us of the Old Testament Day of Atonement with the words of the writer to the Hebrews, in the New Testament. In Hebrews 9 and 10 we read these words:

1. Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary.
2. For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the sanctuary.
3. And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all;
4. Which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant;
5. And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly.
6. Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God.
7. But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people:
8. The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:
9. Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;
10. Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation.
11. But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;
12. Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us.
13. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:
14. How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
15. And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.
16. For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.
17. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth.
18. Whereupon neither the first testament was dedicated without blood.
19. For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people,
20. Saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you.
21. Moreover he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the ministry.
22. And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission.
23. It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.
24. For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:
25. Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others;
26. For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
27. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
28. So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.
1. For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.
2. For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.
3. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year.
4. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.
5. Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me:
6. In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure.

With that passage before us, we do not require comment, except to suggest that Hebrews 9 and 10 might form a useful meditation for this week to complete our thoughts on the day of Atonement.

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