BIBLE STUDY SERIES #290, 291 and 292

8 June, 1997

THE HOLY FEASTS - PART II

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Several years ago, our ongoing series of Bible Studies began in Genesis 12 with God's Call to Abram. It has led us down the generations of his progeny. We have been working our way more or less steadily, with occasional digressions, through successive chapters of the Book of Genesis, then of Exodus, and more recently of Leviticus since that time.

In our last studies, Moses was relaying to the Israelites, gathered at the foot of Mount Sinai some instructions for the holiness of the Priesthood, following which, having arrived at Leviticus 23, we found that this chapter deals with the record of the instructions of The Almighty God to Israel concerning those occasions which are to be held as Feasts of The LORD. Today's Scripture passage starts with verse 9. Let us read from that passage which follows, and as is my custom, I shall include commentaries as we proceed.

9. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
10. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:
11. And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.
12. And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD.
13. And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour: and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin.
14. And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.

The New Bible Commentary gives a note on the next scripture passage under the sub-heading "c. The offering of firstfruits (xxiii. 9-14)." It notes: "This is the third of four laws (cf. xiv. 34, xix. 23, xxv. 2) which apply to the future occupancy of the land. A sheaf ('omer) of the firstfruits (10; cf. Dt. xxiv. 19; Ru. ii. 7, 15) is to be presented as a 'wave offering' (ix. 21, xiv. 12-24). Since the same word is used of a dry measure (Ex. xvi. 16ff.), defined as the tenth part of an ephah (Ex. xvi. 36), the view is held that the sheaf must contain enough grain (barley, since barley ripens two or three weeks before wheat) to produce an omer of fine flour for a meal offering. In the phrase 'the morrow after the sabbath' (11) 'sabbath' has two possible meanings. It may refer to the regular weekly sabbath, which has just been mentioned, or to the Passover as the day of holy convocation, which was followed by the week of unleavened bread. The Pharisees took the one view, the Sadducees the other. This offering of the sheaf was to be accompanied by a burnt offering, with meal and drink offerings (12, 13). On this occasion the size of the meal offering is double the usual. Here the drink offering is mentioned for the first time in Leviticus. It has been already referred to in Ex. xxix. 38-42 in the law regarding the continual burnt offering. Why there is no reference to it in Lv. i-vii which deals particularly with the sacrifices is not clear. The fact that it is mentioned so frequently in connection with the offerings for the set feasts might suggest that it was not, or need not be, offered on ordinary occasions or in the case of private offerings. but Nu. vi. 17 and xv. 1-12 indicate that such an inference is unwarranted. It was apparently never an independent offering under the law, but accompanied the meal offering. This may be the reason why it is not mentioned in chapters i-vii. A further reason may be that it was not to be offered until Israel entered the land (xxiii. 10). But this reason did not apply to the continual burnt offering, which is not mentioned in Leviticus but has been already described in Ex. xxix. 38-42. The offering of the firstfruits symbolized the consecration of the entire harvest to God' and not until it was offered were the people permitted to partake of it (14). This law has a definitely typical significance and is referred to in the New Testament. It is used of the Gentile Christians (Rom. viii. 23), of the ancestors of the Jews (Rom. xi. 16), of individual Christians (Rom. xvi. 5) and of Christ as the firstfruits from the grave (1 Cor. xv. 20, 23). See also 1 Cor. xvi. 15; Jas. i. 18; Rev. xiv. 4."

Keil and Delitzsch mention that in the waving of the sheaf there was a symbolic presentation of the sheaf to Jehovah "without burning any of it upon the altar." They continue, stating that "The rabbinical rule, viz. to dry a portion of the ears by the fire and then, after rubbing them out, to burn them on the altar, was an ordinance of the later scribes, who knew not the law, and was based on chap. ii. 14... ." Superficial reading of that reference might have missed the point that it was one referring to those firstfruits offerings made by private individuals, whereas the wave sheaf offering of firstfruits in our present study at chapter 23 is one made in the name of the whole congregation and "corresponded to the two wave-loaves which were leavened and then baked... ." They explain that "nothing leavened was to be placed upon (the altar)", but rather was assigned entirely to the priests. On the meaning to be attached to the word "Sabbath", Keil and Delitzsch make the interesting assertion that the word "does not mean the seventh day of the week, but the day of rest, although the weekly Sabbath was always the seventh or last day of the week; hence not only the seventh day of the week... but the day of atonement (the tenth of the seventh month), is called 'Sabbath,' and Shabbath shabbathon'." Other examples are added to verify the statement.

15. And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete:
16. Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.
17. Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto the LORD.

Leaven, in Scripture, is a symbol for sin. Here, The Companion Bible remarks that in this great exception, leaven is used in a sacrificial act "because the antitype is not Christ but human kind, and not without sin."

18. And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams: they shall be for a burnt offering unto the LORD, with their meat offering, and their drink offerings, even an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto the LORD.
19. Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings.
20. And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits for a wave offering before the LORD, with the two lambs: they shall be holy to the LORD for the priest.
21. And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.
22. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am the LORD your God.

Under the sub-heading "d. The feast of weeks (xxiii. 15-22), The New Bible commentary says this: "The fact that this feast is not introduced by the words 'And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying' has led to the inference that Pentecost (shabhu'oth) is a continuation or complement of the Passover. In the Talmud it is called 'asarta (cf. xxiii. 36 where this word is used of the eighth day of the feast of tabernacles and rendered 'an holy convocation'). Seven weeks are to be counted from the sabbath (see above) on which the wave offering of the firstfruits was made. Then a new meal offering in the form of two wave loaves is to be offered. They are to be of fine flour, baked with leaven and are described as the firstfruits unto the Lord (17). Since the daily bread of the Israelites was leavened, this naturally implies the consecration of the daily food of the people to God. The offerings consist of burnt, sin and peace offerings. Since this marked the end of the harvest of wheat, it is appropriate that the law regarding gleaning should be repeated here (see xix. 9). See Dt. xvi. 9-12n."

Under the sub-heading "e. The feasts of the seventh month (xxiii. 23-44), The New Bible Commentary makes the short notation that "In view of the sacredness of the number seven, it is natural that the seventh month should be made distinctive. It has three special occasions: the feast of trumpets, the day of atonement, the feast of tabernacles."

23. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
24. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.

As we have reached a suitable point for a break, I shall leave the remainder of our study of this chapter for next week.

Do keep in mind that, as we of the British-Israel-World Federation affirm, the descendants of the anciently deported tribes of northern Israel are, by strong evidence, located in the Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples, and it is therefore of more than passing interest to such people to garner these aspects of their roots from the Holy Scriptures. We shall continue our studies of this chapter on our next programme.

15 June, 1997

THE HOLY FEASTS - PART III

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Several years ago, our ongoing series of Bible Studies began in Genesis 12 with God's Call to Abram. It has led us down the generations of his progeny. We have been working our way more or less steadily, with occasional digressions, through successive chapters of the Book of Genesis, then of Exodus, and more recently of Leviticus since that time.

On our last studies, Moses was relaying to the Israelites, gathered at the foot of Mount Sinai some instructions from Leviticus 23. We found that this chapter deals with the record of the instructions of The Almighty God to Israel concerning those occasions which are to be held as Feasts of The LORD. Today's Scripture passage starts with verse 25, but we might take a look at the previous two verses a well, in order to make the connection with what has gone before. Let us read from the passage which follows, and , in customary fashion I shall include comments as we proceed.

Under the sub-heading "e. The feasts of the seventh month (xxiii. 23-44), The New Bible Commentary makes the short notation that "In view of the sacredness of the number seven, it is natural that the seventh month should be made distinctive. It has three special occasions: the feast of trumpets, the day of atonement, the feast of tabernacles."

23. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
24. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.
25. Ye shall do no servile work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

Following this paragraph, the notations are as follows: I. The feast of trumpets (xxiii. 24, 25). This is briefly described. The blowing of trumpets on the first day of the month directed especial attention to this important season of the year, the completion of the agricultural season. It was to be marked by two of the great events of the year. It is described as a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, and as a holy convocation (24). According to Jewish tradition the trumpet used on this occasion was not the silver trumpet of Nu. x. 2-10, but the shophar, the ram's horn (yobhel) which was used on specially solemn occasions, notably to proclaim the year of jubilee (cf. also Jos. vi and see note there). No servile work is to be done; and sacrifice is to be offered. This remembrance-blowing may be understood in two senses: God reminding the people of their duty to prepare themselves for the solemnities which this month has in store for them; and the people reminding God of His covenant and of His goodness to their fathers and to them. The word trumpet does not occur in the Hebrew. The word teru'ah may denote either 'shouting' of people, or trumpet-'blast'. Perhaps both were included. This day, the first of Tishri, is called by the Jews rosh hashshanah, the beginning of the year. It is the beginning of the civil year, new year's day."

26. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
27. Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
28. And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.
29. For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.
30. And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.
31. Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
32. It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.

In the second note under this section, we read: "II. The day of atonement (xxiii. 26-32). This festival, which has been so fully described in chapter xvi as regards the duties of Aaron, the sacrifices to be performed and the way in which they are to be performed, is described here entirely from the standpoint of the duties of the people (26-32). It is to be a sabbath of rest (32; Heb. shabbath shabbathon). No work of any kind is to be done and fasting is to be observed; they are to afflict their souls. Disobedience will be most severely punished. Cf. Nu. xxix. 7-11, which deals especially with the offerings."

33. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
34. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD.

The Companion Bible notes the meaning of "tabernacles" as "booths, Heb. sukkoth= a lodge in a garden"


35. On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.
36. Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein.
37. These are the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day:
38. Beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the LORD.
39. Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath.
40. And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.
41. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.
42. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:
43. That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.
44. And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the LORD.

The last section under the sub-heading is noted in The New Bible Commentary under "iii. The feast of tabernacles (xxiii. 33-44). This resembles the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread in several important respects. Both are primarily historical feasts, the one recalling the Exodus, the deliverance from Egypt and the circumstances of their flight, the other recalling the long sojourn in the wilderness. Both are of considerable length, extending over eight days. Both are closely connected with the daily life and happiness of the people, the one standing at the beginning, the other at the close of the agricultural year. A marked difference is that in the latter feast there is no prohibition of the use of leaven. Nu. xxix. 12-38 describes this feast in greater detail, listing the special offerings for each day. The total is remarkable. The burnt offering consists of bullocks, rams and lambs. The number of rams (two) and of lambs (fourteen) remains the same for each of the seven days, while the number of bullocks begins with thirteen and is reduced gradually to seven, making a total of seventy bullocks, or an average of ten a day. On the eighth day the offering is one bullock, one ram and seven lambs. On each of the eight days there is a sin offering consisting of one goat. It is carefully pointed out that each separate burnt offering is to have its meal offering and its drink offering. It is rather remarkable that the number of the bullocks is decreased from day to day instead of increased. The set feasts which have just been described are summed up in words very similar to verse 4. Then a further law is given with regard to the feast of tabernacles. The people are to live in booths for seven days that their generations may know that the Lord made the children of Israel to dwell in booths (43) when He brought them out of the land of Egypt. And the people are to rejoice before the Lord (40). Thus the fasting of the day of atonement as a sign of sorrow for sin is speedily followed by the joy of this festival. It is remarkable that it is called the feast of tabernacles (34; lit. 'booths', Heb. sukkoth; cf. verses 42, 43), since elsewhere in the Pentateuch, except for Gn. xxxiii. 17, the word 'booth' nowhere occurs, the Israelites being said to have dwelt in tents. The thought which is stressed is of course the frail and temporary character the dwellings of the people during the wilderness sojourn. Thus Jerusalem is likened by Isaiah to a cottage (booth) in a vineyard (i. 8), so frail and poverty-stricken has the abode of the daughter of Zion become. It should hardly be necessary to point out that the word tabernacles has nothing at all in common with the word tabernacle as used of the sanctuary of the Lord. The words are entirely distinct. Cf. the references to this feast in 2 Ch. viii. 13; Ezr. iii. 4; Ne. viii. 13-18; Zc. xiv. 16-19. While these feasts were seasonal and suited to an agricultural people, the emphasis placed on historical events is clearly for the purpose of keeping alive in the minds of the people the great deliverance from Egypt in its most important aspects."

All these laws have a continuing function as a means of identification of the participants with the ongoing themes being worked out through history by The Almighty, and also as both an expression of prophecy of things yet to come, and as an unfolding of the divine purpose in the symbolic form of a teaching aid. May these thoughts add to your understanding and appreciation of the Word of God during this coming week.

Do keep in mind that present-day descendants of those ancient Tribes of Israel, taken captive in the Assyrian deportations are now, as we attest, to be discovered in the Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the world so to them in particular, these matters form a part of their root and heritage.

29 June, 1997

SABBATICAL YEAR AND YEAR OF JUBILEE - PART I

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our present series of studies began several years ago at Genesis 12 with the account of God's Call to Abram. It has led us down the generations of his progeny and we have been working our way more or less steadily, with occasional digressions, through successive chapters of Genesis, Exodus and more recently Leviticus since then.

On our last studies, Moses was relaying to the Israelites, gathered at the foot of Mount Sinai some instructions from Leviticus 24 regarding the oil for the candlestick, the provision of shewbread or "bread of arrangement", and the law concerning blasphemy and the sentence thereof. We pick up today's Scripture passage at Leviticus 25:1, wherein we find Moses conveys to the nation of Israel information regarding the rule for observance of "The Sabbatical Year and the Year of Jubile." Let us hear the first portion of that chapter. As is my usual custom, information will be inserted at convenient points from various sources for elucidation of the meanings we are expected to understand from the passage.

1. And the LORD spake unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying,
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the LORD.
3. Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof;
4. But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the LORD: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard.
5. That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed: for it is a year of rest unto the land.
6. And the sabbath of the land shall be meat for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger that sojourneth with thee,
7. And for thy cattle, and for the beast that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be meat.

In verse 1, The Companion Bible draws our attention to the point that here Jehovah spake in Mount Sinai, and not out of the Tabernacle. It continues of "Sabbath" in verse two, "Heb. sabbath a sabbatizing ... = keep a sacred sabbath, and in verse 4, it draws our attention to the point that the term occurs seven times - It occurs four times of the weekly sabbath, twice of the Day of Atonement, and once, at this verse, of the sabbath of years. "Undressed" in verse 5 of course, means unpruned, while in verse 6, sabbath represents the fruits of the seventh year. At verse 7, the Companion Bible explains that "increase = gain or profit - Heb. tebuah - So in [verses] 12, 20, not in 16, 36, 37."

The New Bible Commentary notes on The Sabbatical Year "The principle of a regularly recurring day of rest has been dealt with in chapter xxiii in connection with the annual feasts; and in a way which strongly emphasized the septadic principle. This principle is now carried still further, to the establishing of the sabbatical year of jubile. In the law of the sabbath rest, the principle is applied to all human beings, whether free or bond, and also to the cattle (Ex. xx. 10), to the ox, the ass, or any cattle, as beasts of burden (Dt. v. 14), as well as to the sojourner. Here it is extended to the land. Every seventh year the land is to have a sabbath of rest (4) (shabbath shabbathon) from sowing and reaping. The land is to be left untilled and that which grows of itself, called in verse 6 the sabbath of the land (i.e., what the sabbath of the land produces of itself), is to be food for all alike, for the owner and the servant, for the sojourner and the cattle. It is not the product of human industry and it is to be free to all. Furthermore, the promise is given that the yield of the sixth year, being ordered and blessed by God, will be sufficient (18-22) for this period of rest. It is the law of the manna on a larger scale (Ex xvi. 22). This at least suggests that the sabbath increase (6, 7), unlike the gleanings of the ordinary year which were assigned to the widow and orphan, will suffice for the actual needs of everyone (cf. Ex. xvi. 17f.). According to Dt. xxxi. 10 this year is not to be spent in idleness, but to be used for the teaching and training of Israel in the law of God." We now continue at verse 8.

8. And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years.
9. Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land.
10. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.
11. A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed.
12. For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field.
13. In the year of this jubile ye shall return every man unto his possession.
14. And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one another:
15. According to the number of years after the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee:
16. According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it: for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee.
17. Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy God: for I am the LORD your God.
18. Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; and ye shall dwell in the land in safety.
19. And the land shall yield her fruit, and ye shall eat your fill, and dwell therein in safety.
20. And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase:
21. Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years.
22. And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the old store.

The Companion Bible explains at verse 8 that "seven sabbaths of years = 7 x 7 = 49" years. In verse 9 the word "trumpet = a curved horn of jubilee, i.e. of loud or joyful sound." Here that reference explains that it is the Hebrew word "yobel" and that this would be the "First jubilee; the last [would be] at the Nativity (the 29th)." Explaining the word "atonement" it refers us to see Exodus 29:33 in which Aaron and his sons are to eat the atonement meal, but the "stranger" shall not eat thereof because they are holy. In verse 10 that source indicates that "Hallow=set apart" while "proclaim = cause public notice to be given", "oppress" in verse 14, "=overreach", while in verse 15, "According = in proportion." The estimation of value was regulated by nearness of the jubilee. So, as the reference states, "our estimation of value of earthly things governed by our sense of the nearness of Christ's coming" which is quite thought provoking. Verse 17, it notes "God" translates the Hebrew word "Elohim", in 18, "safety=confidence" and in verse 20, of the question "What [shall we eat the seventh year]?" it points to "A lesson for us. God's 'I will' [being] the answer to our 'What?'."

The New Bible Commentary note on this passage, under the heading "b. The Jubile (xxv. 8-55)" and "i. Rules for its observance (xxv. 8-22)" states "The fiftieth year is carefully defined as the one following seven sabbatical years (8). It is introduced by 'sending abroad' throughout the land the 'loud trumpet' on the day of atonement of the fiftieth year (9, RV). The trumpet (Heb. shophar) used was the horn (qeren) of the ram (cf. Jos. vi. 4f.) and consequently, by abbreviation, yobhel (ram), from which the term 'jubile' is derived, becomes synonymous with trumpet. Cf. Ex. xix. 13, 19, where both words are used. This trumpet blast, which introduces the jubile, is like the trumpet sound which prepared and summoned Israel to become the covenant people of their God. The same law regarding sowing and reaping applies to this year as to the sabbatical years which preceded it; and since it began in the autumn it seems clear that the sabbatical years did the same. It is a year of liberty, a year of return (10, 13) to possessions and to family. This return to normalcy, as we may call it, is to be on a strictly equitable basis (14-17). Buying and selling are to be carried on with due regard to the approaching year of jubile. And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? (20). this seems to imply that the hypothetical objectors have the sabbatical year only in mind. but the answer includes the larger problem as well, the case when the sabbatical year is followed by the Jubile. This is indicated by the mention of three years (21) and of the eighth and ninth years (22). The answering of the greater difficulty includes, of course, the solution of the lesser."

We shall continue our examination of this chapter in our next study. With all these studies, please keep in mind our theme which is that the present day descendants of ancient Israel are chiefly recognized today in the Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred folk to whom these matters ought to be of especial interest.

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