BIBLE STUDY SERIES #620, 621 and 622

12 October, 2003

TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS - PART IX

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

In the first parts of this series, we had delved into some aspects of history concerning the spread of Christianity in the early centuries of the Christian era. We did this because the manner in which the Apostles approached the carrying out of Christ's specific commands concerning their intended objectives reveals something supportive of our British-Israel contention regarding the location of the true genealogical descendants of ancient Israel of the Bible, found today in the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples.

Christ had told His disciples, and commissioned His Apostles, that they must, as their first priority, take the news of that which they had learned about Himself, and about the progression of the advancement of His Kingdom, to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel." The actual quotations which appear to be most pertinent in this regard have been briefly noted in the former Parts of this Series, but it might be needful, for new listeners that we briefly repeat part of what was quoted in this regard. Matthew 10:5-7 quotes Christ's directives to the twelve disciples thus:

5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:
6. But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
7. And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

Thus, the Apostles could have been in no doubt as to the geographical location of those, often termed "The Lost Tribes." They knew perfectly well who they were and where they were living at the time of Christ's command. They knew that their commission from The Lord was to journey across the sea or to walk through the intervening lands to speak to these descendants of Israel of old time.

On our more recent Studies, I had introduced one book, "The Coming Of The Saints", by J. W. Taylor, followed by a second one, "The Drama Of The Lost Disciples" by George F. Jowett, from a set of three books which have, as their general subject matter, a related approach. All three recount and flesh out the theme which we have just reviewed, namely that Christ was sent at His First Advent to redeem the lost tribes of His people of Israel descent and therefore passed the task of relating the Kingdom-Gospel to His disciples, so that they in turn might carry it to those Lost Tribesmen of the Northern House of Israel. Thus it was that these same disciples, carrying the Christian Gospel of His Kingdom, came very early to The British Isles, and other lands wherein lived some large numbers of descendants of ancient Israel of all twelve Tribes; to those who are now known by the names Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples.

On the last four Studies, I had read portions from that second book, "The Drama Of The Lost Disciples", by George F. Jowett, in hope that listeners might desire to learn more of this remarkable and wonderful story, which recounts how Christianity actually arrived in Britain many hundreds of years prior to the visit of St. Augustine to the shores of Kent.

Today, I want to introduce the third of the three books, which deal with essentially the same general theme; this one holding forth with a particular focus upon St. Joseph of Arimathea, and Glastonbury in the Western part of Britain. Whereas the first and the second books present a more general view of the entire subject, this third book reflects on certain more detailed aspects which come to us in diverse strands out of accounts from various informed sources. Its approach to the subject tends more to mark and evaluate each source with scholarly care and where deemed valuable to explore the detail and provenance of those things which are reported.

The title of this third book is "St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury" and its author is the Rev. Lionel Smithett Lewis, M.A., late Vicar of Glastonbury. The book has passed down to us through a number of editions and repeat printings following its first appearance in 1922, as printed by James Clarke & Co. Ltd. Indeed, Editions were produced in 1923, 1924, 1927, 1931, 1937 and 1955 with a reprint in 1976, and the first paperback edition in 1982, and reprinted in 1988 by The Guernsey Press Co. Ltd. From this, we may see that the work has, over the years, and the generations, been received and appreciated by numerous readers. Indeed, the Seventh Edition contains a Foreword by The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells at The Palace, Wells, Somerset, June 11, 1953, in which he stated "I gladly write a Foreword to this 7th Edition of St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury. Mr. Lewis has spent many years of research on this particular tradition, and this Edition of his book incorporates the fruits of his recent work. I hope it may help many to a better appreciation of the place which Glastonbury has in the unfolding of our Christian tradition in England."

The cover flap of the 1955 edition bears an introductory sketch which appears in a somewhat more abbreviated form on the back cover of the later paperback printing. It reads as follows: "Britain is proverbially rich in monuments of the past, but of all the ancient places with outward and visible links with antiquity the little Somerset town of Glastonbury is surely unique. for it is not only rich in visible evidences, wrought in stone, of generations long departed, but steeped in fascinating legend and tradition.

One of the most widespread of these ancient stories is that circling around the figure of St. Joseph of Arimathea. It is said that he came to Britain as a metal merchant seeking tin, and that on this journey he was accompanied by none other than the boy Jesus. This rather startling tale is paralleled by a number of very similar traditional stories told until recent times in various parts of the West Country.

According to another and later tradition, this same Glastonbury is the very cradle of English Christianity, where an infant church was planted by those who personally knew Our Lord.

For over twenty years the Author was Vicar of Glastonbury, and devoted much of his spare time to studying these ancient stories. Becoming convinced that the cumulative evidence was too strong to ignore, in this interesting book he presents the findings of many years ardent research."

The older hardback and the paper covered editions of this work contain an illustration of "Arms Accredited to St. Joseph", and I should like to give a verbal description of this device, although recourse to works on heraldry does not yield a satisfactory device description of these arms. Indeed authoritative books on the subject of heraldry tend to a certain extent to give greater attention to symbolic devices which are of military stamp, particularly if these arose out of medieval or more modern times.

I might convey my impression of the Arms of St. Joseph by reference to the central figure of a cross formed of roughly-trimmed logs fronting a field of drops with two cruets in the lower quarters of the field. The symbolism relates to the concept that the cruets received some of Christ's Blood at the Crucifixion, and presumably were brought with the Saint to Britain. As a paragraph on page 28 mentions: "All the earliest traditions of Glastonbury circle round St. Joseph. Its name, the Secret of the Lord , probably comes from his having buried the Holy Grail there, and his being buried there with the two phials with the blood and sweat of Our Lord... ." Specifically, the account draws a distinction between these cruets and traditions concerning the Holy Grail, which "is supposed to have been buried near Chalice Well, on Chalice Hill, whence their name." There is a further reference to pages 94 and 95 wherein a long footnote gives further informative information conveying details relating to this topic of the two cruets.

The hard cover edition contains some black and white photographs which are unfortunately missing from the soft-cover edition. These are listed as follows. Abbey Church ruins; frontispiece, St. Mary's Chapel, North doorway; p. 24, Gog: oak of Avalon; p. 30, A fallen monarch; p. 32, St. Patrick's Chapel, doorway and stoop; p. 46, Glastonbury and the Tor; p. 48, St. Mary's Chapel, west end; p. 70, St. Patrick's Chapel, the altar; p. 78, Miss Buckton and St. Bride's bell; p. 206. Lest the latter photograph raise an eyebrow or two, I ought to note that the author devotes a page and a half to this Saint, explaining how Saint Bride, the Patron Saint of all milkmaids, with great spirit and loving devotion to every person and creature made a remarkable contribution to the spread of Christianity in the Ireland of her time. She died February 1, about the year 525 A.D. It is of such delightful insights that the author brings the Christian history of the Celtic Church alive to the reader.

Before we finish, I might just have time to read An Old Glastonbury Collect (translated) from the page following the title page of the book. It says "Almighty, everlasting God, Who didst entrust Thy most blessed servant, Joseph, to take down the lifeless body of Thine Only-Begotten Son from the Cross, and to perform the due offices of humanity, hasten, we pray Thee, that we, who devotedly recall His memory, may feel the help of Thine accustomed pity, through the same, Our Lord. Amen."

19 October, 2003

TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS - PART X

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

In the first parts of this series, we had delved into some aspects of history concerning the spread of Christianity in the early centuries of the Christian era. We did this because the manner in which the Apostles approached the carrying out of Christ's specific commands concerning their intended objectives reveals something supportive of our British-Israel contention regarding the location of the true genealogical descendants of ancient Israel of the Bible, found today in the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples.

Christ had told His disciples, and commissioned His Apostles, that they must, as their first priority, take the news of that which they had learned about Himself, and about the progression of the advancement of His Kingdom, to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel." The actual quotations which appear to be most pertinent in this regard have been briefly noted in the former Parts of this Series, but it might be needful, for new listeners that we briefly repeat part of what was quoted in this regard. Matthew 10:5-7 quotes Christ's directives to the twelve disciples thus:

5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:
6. But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
7. And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

Thus, the Apostles could have been in no doubt as to the geographical location of those, often termed "The Lost Tribes." They knew perfectly well who they were and where they were living at the time of Christ's command. They knew that their commission from The Lord was to journey across the sea or to walk through the intervening lands to speak to these descendants of Israel of old time.

On our more recent Studies, I had introduced one book, "The Coming Of The Saints", by J. W. Taylor, followed by a second one, "The Drama Of The Lost Disciples" by George F. Jowett, from a set of three books which have, as their general subject matter, a related approach. All three recount and flesh out the theme which we have just reviewed, namely that Christ was sent at His First Advent to redeem the lost tribes of His people of Israel descent and therefore passed the task of relating the Kingdom-Gospel to His disciples, so that they in turn might carry it to those Lost Tribesmen of the Northern House of Israel. Thus it was that these same disciples, carrying the Christian Gospel of His Kingdom, came very early to The British Isles, and other lands wherein lived some large numbers of descendants of ancient Israel of all twelve Tribes; to those who are now known by the names Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples.

The title of the third book, which I had introduced on the last Study, is "St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury" and its author is the Rev. Lionel Smithett Lewis, M.A., late Vicar of Glastonbury. The book has passed down to us through a number of editions and repeat printings following its first appearance in 1922, as printed by James Clarke & Co. Ltd. and the first paperback edition came out in 1982, and was reprinted in 1988 by The Guernsey Press Co. Ltd. From this, we may see that the work has, over the years, and the generations, been received and appreciated by numerous readers.

Today, I can do no better than to introduce some parts of the contents of this most interesting work to our listeners, in hope that they might feel moved to seek out a copy in order to further their own interest and appreciation of the thesis which it contains. Our book room may still have some copies of it at our Headquarters in Toronto. Here, then, is how the book begins: after the Old Glastonbury Collect, which mentions Joseph, The Glastonbury Hymn by William Blake, 1757-1827 is printed, with it oft-sung words, of which the lines read as most thought-provoking questions:

And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains green?
And was the Holy Lamb of God On England's pleasant pastures seen?
And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here Among those dark Satanic mills?

The note which follows the two verses says "This hymn, which is founded upon the Glastonbury Tradition, was specially loved and commended to his people by His late Majesty, King George V." I would add that it is sufficient to note the continued frequent use of this Hymn on a number of Royal Occasions since that Monarch's time.

The Contents follows that note, and is divided into four parts. I might just list the Chapter Titles. These are:
in Part I,
Chapter 1. Antiquity of Glastonbury and Origin of the National Church.
In Part II: Traditions,
Chapters 2. St. Joseph of Arimathea,
3. Good King Lucius,
4. Our Lord and the Blessed Virgin, and
5. Topical Support of the Traditions.
In Part III: Authorities,
Chapters 6. The Coming of the Disciples of Christ,
7. The Coming of St. Joseph of Arimathea,
8. The Coming of St. Philip to France,
9. The Coming of St. Simon Zelotes,
10. The Coming of Aristobulus, and
11. The Coming of St. Paul.
In Part IV: Evidences, we find
Chapters 12. Early Missions from Britain,
13. Early Fathers, Diocletian Persecution, Church Councils, and Pelagian Heresy,
14. Conclusion, to which is added
Appendices.

If we wish to gather some sense of the author's approach in his first chapter, we shall need to scan through his very scholarly and detailed treatment of the various theories concerning the origin of the name "Glastonbury" and start our quotation half way down the second page with these words: Be these theories as they may, "The Mother Church of the British Isles is the Church in Insula Avallonia, called by the Saxons 'Glaston',"' wrote the learned Archbishop Ussher. "It is certain that Britain received the Faith in the first age from the first sowers of the Word. Of all the churches whose origin I have investigated in Britain, the church of Glastonbury is the most ancient," wrote Sir Henry Spelman in his Concilia, and again he wrote in the same work: "We have abundant evidence that this Britain of ours received the Faith, and that from the disciples of Christ Himself, soon after the Crucifixion of Christ." Robert Parsons, the Jesuit, in his Three Conversions of England, admits that "The Christian religion began in Britain within fifty years of Christ's ascension," His co-religionist, the very learned Alford, in his Regia Fides says: "It is perfectly certain that, before St. Paul had come to Rome, Aristobulus was absent in Britain." The discreet Fuller goes so far as to say: "If credit be given to these ancient authors, this Church without competition was senior to all Christian churches in the world."

"Britain," wrote the erudite Polydore Vergil, "partly through Joseph of Arimathea, partly through Fugatus and Damianus, was of all kingdoms the first that received the Gospel." Polydore Vergil had special access to sources of the Glastonbury story. He was Prebendary of Brent in Wells Cathedral, and Archdeacon of Wells, six miles from Glastonbury. In 1504 he was actually enthroned Bishop of Bath and Wells as proxy for his foreign non-resident kinsman, Adrian de Castello, and acted for him. He was very critical. He rejected the stories of Brute and Arthur, and despised Geoffrey of Monmouth. But he believed in the story of St. Joseph. He was a very liberal-minded man. In 1547 he signed a declaration in favour of the Communion in both kinds. He was born at Urbino in Italy about 1470. He came of a literary family for four generations. One brother was a Professor of Philosophy at Pavia; another, Jerome, was a London merchant. He himself, after studying at Bologna and Padua, and acting as Chamberlain to Pope Alexander IV (1492-1498), came to England as Sub-Collector of Peter's Pence, and for some time he led a literary life in London, and Henry VII asked him to write an English History. Such was Polydore Vergil who bore the above testimony. The testimony of a learned Italian steeped in English history, resident in England, well-versed in the lore of Glastonbury, that England was the first country to receive the Gospel is particularly valuable.

It is a matter of distinct interest, which we commend to modern Roman Catholics, that Cardinal Pole, twice over, when solemnly reconciling England to the Pope and the Church of Rome, at the beginning of Queen Mary's reign, claimed that Britain was the first country to be converted to Christianity. Before Philip and Mary under a cloth of state, and the assembled Lords and Commons in the great Chamber at Whitehall, the Cardinal said, "The See Apostolic from whence I come hath a special respect to this realm above all others, and not without cause, seeing that God Himself, as it were, by providence hath given to this realm prerogative of nobility above all others, which to make plain unto you, it is to be considered that this island first of all islands received the light of Christ's religion", evidently confirming Gildas' statement! The next day in Westminster Abbey, before Philip and Mary in state, and the Lords and Commons assembled for the act of reconciliation, the Cardinal uttered these words: "Once again God hath given a token of His special favour to the realm, for as this nation in the time of the Primitive Church was the first to be called out of the darkness of heathenism, so now they are the first to whom God has given grace to repent of their schism," etc.

The author adds "...it may be inconvenient, but in passages like this Rome in her palmy days admitted that the British Church was at least an elder sister, certainly not a daughter, of the Roman. Modern Roman Catholics are too often much more Roman than Catholic.

The author then notes: The Venerable Bede, writing about A.D. 740, says: "The Britons preserved the Faith which they had received under King Lucius uncorrupted, and continued in peace and tranquillity until the time of the Emperor Diocletian." That the Venerable Bede does not refer to St. Joseph is not surprising. Neither does he refer to St. Patrick... .

Later, the author adds that The Venerable Bede was "intensely Roman." I shall hope to make some further mention of the material conveyed in this book on the next Study. All this just from part of the first chapter! It is well worth obtaining a copy of the book.

26 October, 2003

TIME FOR A FEW QUESTIONS - PART XI

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

In the first parts of this series, we had delved into some aspects of history concerning the spread of Christianity in the early centuries of the Christian era. We did this because the manner in which the Apostles approached the carrying out of Christ's specific commands concerning their intended objectives reveals something supportive of our British-Israel contention regarding the location of the true genealogical descendants of ancient Israel of the Bible, found today in the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples.

Christ had told His disciples, and commissioned His Apostles, that they must, as their first priority, take the news of that which they had learned about Himself, and about the progression of the advancement of His Kingdom, to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel." The actual quotations which appear to be most pertinent in this regard have been briefly noted in the former Parts of this Series, but it might be needful, for new listeners that we briefly repeat part of what was quoted in this regard. Matthew 10:5-7 quotes Christ's directives to the twelve disciples thus:

5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:
6. But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
7. And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

Thus, the Apostles could have been in no doubt as to the geographical location of those, often termed "The Lost Tribes." They knew perfectly well who they were and where they were living at the time of Christ's command. They knew that their commission from The Lord was to journey across the sea or to walk through the intervening lands to speak to these descendants of Israel of old time.

On our more recent Studies, I had introduced one book, "The Coming Of The Saints", by J. W. Taylor, followed by a second one, "The Drama Of The Lost Disciples" by George F. Jowett, from a set of three books which have, as their general subject matter, a related approach. All three recount and flesh out the theme which we have just reviewed, namely that Christ was sent at His First Advent to redeem the lost tribes of His people of Israel descent and therefore passed the task of relating the Kingdom-Gospel to His disciples, so that they in turn might carry it to those Lost Tribesmen of the Northern House of Israel. Thus it was that these same disciples, carrying the Christian Gospel of His Kingdom, came very early to The British Isles, and other lands wherein lived some large numbers of descendants of ancient Israel of all twelve Tribes; to those who are now known by the names Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples.

The title of the third book, which I had introduced on the last Study, is "St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury" and its author is the Rev. Lionel Smithett Lewis, M.A., late Vicar of Glastonbury. The book has passed down to us through a number of editions and repeat printings following its first appearance in 1922, as printed by James Clarke & Co. Ltd. and the first paperback edition came out in 1982, and was reprinted in 1988 by The Guernsey Press Co. Ltd. From this, we may see that the work has, over the years, and the generations, been received and appreciated by numerous readers.

Today, I can do no better than to introduce some further portions of the contents of this most interesting work to our listeners, in hope that they might feel moved to seek out a copy in order to further their own interest and appreciation of the thesis which it contains. Our book room may still have some copies of it at our Headquarters in Toronto. It is not my intention to rob the listener of the instructive pleasure of discovering the contents through reading their personal copy of the book, by pursuing the entire text, in this series of broadcasts, but the Second Chapter feeds us so much which is perhaps both new and yet old in connecting parts of the historic setting and the attendant questions which might arise within the scope of our topic that to miss it would deprive us of certain aspects which ought to be covered. Here, then, is a portion taken from Chapter 2 of the book, which is simply titled "St. Joseph of Arimathea." "It is not too much to say that the site of St. Mary's Church in the Abbey grounds at Glastonbury is the site of the first known above-ground church in the world. The present ruined Norman church stands on the same site as the ancient Celtic wattle church which all tradition and history say was built by the Disciples of Christ. There was probably no other above-ground church in Rome than the Titulus till the time of Constantine the Great, when the Empire followed him in becoming Christian about A.D. 326. It is interesting to note the claim that this Titulus - or Hospitium Apostolorum, or Palatium Britannicum - was the abode of Rufus Pudens, the Roman noble who married Claudia Britannica, the most cultured woman in Rome, apparently daughter of the British king, Caractacus, and sister of Linus, Bishop of Rome."

Here,we shall pause to give our attention to two footnotes on this page. The first, in respect of the name "Titulus" notes "This 'most ample house' with its baths named after Timothy and Novatus, two of the children of Rufus and Claudia, built on Viminalis Hill, became first a place where their daughter Praxedes hid martyrs, then a hospice for pilgrims from the East, and under Pope Evaristus (A.D. 100-109) a church, and was called Pastor's, probably after Pastor Hermas, who wrote to them. Baronius expressly calls St. Timothy a disciple of St. Peter and St. Paul (Vol. 2, Sec. 56, p. 47). Pastor Hermas says that all four children, Timotheus, Novatus, Praxedes, and Pudentiana, were instructed by preaching of the Apostles (Baronius, Vol. 2, sec. 8-148.)"

Now I shall turn to that second footnote, one relating to Linus, Bishop of Rome. It states "Bishop, A.D. 69, martyred A.D. 90 (Baronius, Vol. I, p. 778). In p. 739, he quotes Epiphanius as saying that SS. Peter and Paul were both bishops in Rome (possibly the former presided over a Jewish, and the latter over a Gentile congregation) and that Linus succeeded them."

Here we shall again pick up the thread of our text. It reads thus: "On the site of this house where St. Paul probably lived with the British Royal Family in exile, and from which he was probably martyred, is now a church dedicated to St. Pudentiana, one of the martyred daughters of Pudens and Claudia. Pudens died, martyred, A.D. 96, and Claudia, who survived him one year, is said to have given the Titulus to be a Home for the Faithful, afterwards, between A.D. 100-109, to become a Christian church. This, as I shall show, is later than the date ascribed to the founding of St. Joseph of Arimathea's wattle church at Glastonbury.

Here we should insert the next footnote, which says "In the Glastonbury Museum, from the Glastonbury Lake village about 100 B.C. can be seen remains of mud and wattle housing. W. M. Mackenzie in his Pompeii (Cap. 3, p. 41) writes: 'The shepherds who came down from Albe Longa and founded Rome brought with them their type of dwelling-house of wood and wattled stubble which we see modelled in their burial urns.' The Romans and the Britons claimed a common Trojan origin. Their facial resemblance is strong."

Once again, picking up our main text, we read: "It is not too much to say that the site of St. Mary's, Glastonbury, is the site of the earliest known above-ground church in the world. It is very interesting to note how the ancient British Royal Family was intimately connected with the earliest Apostolic Church, both in exile at Rome, and in Britain, where they fostered it. And there is a most interesting relic of the friendship of St. Paul and the Caractacus family in the existence of contemporary portraits of St. Paul and Linus engraved in two glass paterae (in the Vatican Museum) depicted in Sir Wyke Bayliss's Rex Regum (pp. 60, 61). In the same Museum and the same book (pp. 73-75) there are contemporary portraits engraved on glass medallions with lines filled in with gold of (1) St. John, Damas, St. Peter, and St. Paul; (2) St. Peter and St. Paul; (3) Justin and St. Timothy, which makes all these people live to us.

The Roman poet Martial shows that Claudia Rufina was British." Here a footnote amplifies: "He calls her 'Claudia peregrina et edita Britannis' (Martial, 13 B, XI, 53). (Foreign Claudia native of the Britons.)" Picking up the main text, we read "Since Claudia wife of Rufus comes from the blue-set Britons, how is it that she has so won the hearts of the Latin people?" The author then continues: "He praises her beauty and that of her three children as greater than that of Greeks and Italians. It is interesting that he speaks of Rufus as her 'holy husband'. In an earlier epigram he had written, 'The foreign Claudia marries my Rufus Pudens.' Martial was born in Bilbilis in Spain, and went to Rome A.D. 65. He wrote the above poem about A.D. 68. About the same time St. Paul links together the name of Pudens, Linus and Claudia with Eubulus in his greetings to St. Timothy from Rome (2 Tim. iv, 21). In Romans xvi, 13, he sends greetings from Corinth to 'Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother, and mine', and in verse 10 he had sent greetings 'to them which are of Aristobulus' household'. I will hazard the guess that Aristobulus and Eubulus may be the same person. Eubulus means 'prudent' or 'well counselling' and Aristobulus means 'best counsellor'. Eubulus may have been his right name, and Aristobulus a pet name, with a play upon the words. A Pudens, servant of the Emperor Claudius, is named among the sepulchral chambers of the Imperial household. It is a matter, too, of interest that the name of Pudens is also in the well-known Latin inscription on a stone discovered at Chichester, which narrates that Pudens, son of Pudentinus, gave a site there for a Temple to Neptune and Minerva. The inscription also bears the name of the Emperor Tiberius Claudius, who died in A.D. 37. This would be before the conversion of Rufus Pudens, and the dates fit in well. Baronius tells us that Rufus the Senator received St. Peter into his house on the Viminalis Hill in the year A.D. 44." As we are out of time, I shall have to leave an important footnote reference until our next Study.

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