|BIBLE STUDY SERIES #62, 63 and 64|
3 January, 1993
By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.
During the last two weeks we have digressed from our usual pattern of talks on the Genesis passages of scripture, in order to recognize the annual occasions of Christmas and New Year's Day. With today's talk, we now return to our ongoing series of Bible Studies, picking up the account in Genesis 49.
We were, you may remember, imagining ourselves to be, in a manner of speaking, onlookers, listening in as the sons of Jacob-Israel gathered about his bed and that aged Patriarch is, as we read the account, presently in the process of imparting his final blessings to each of his sons. These blessings to each son will form, for each tribe, the basic theme indicating what we now know to be the designation of a tribal symbol; one which later tribal descendants of each of these Patriarchs will display and recognize as the mark of their own tribe.
We had heard how Reuben, Simeon and Levi had each previously manifested some blemish of character, and in turn, each had been bypassed for the chief of the blessings. Their chief blessings had, consequently, indicated heraldic devices which included such primary and secondary symbols as a man and the surface of the sea for Reuben, a sword and the city gate of Shechem for Simeon, and perhaps originally a sword for Levi also although Levi was later to bear a rendition of the High Priest's breastplate as tribal insignia.
Judah, the next in line among the sons of Leah, had consequently been granted the noteworthy blessing of leadership. He was the son through whom would come the monarchs of Israel, and eventually, the King of kings, under the title of Shiloh, to whom would pass the sceptre of rule.
Following this a blessing had been pronounced on Zebulun and upon Issachar. Zebulun's symbol, we understood, would be a ship which designates, some believe, the people of Holland of the present day. Issachar would be wise, but endure paying of tribute in order to secure material increase.
Today, we find the aged Israel, now close to the final hour of his death, moving on to address the sons of the concubines Bilhah and Zilpah. The oldest of these sons is Dan, and Jacob now addresses Dan in the passage found in Genesis 49:16:
16. Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.
17. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.
18. I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.
The name "Dan" means "Judge". One commentary, that of Keil and Delitzsch, contains the suggestion that this passage indicates that the Tribe of Dan will, in accordance with the meaning of his name, procure justice for his people of Israel. The Tribe of Dan will, in accordance with this prophetic passage, possess at least two symbols. From the statement by Jacob, we find that one symbol was to be a snake, or, more particularly according to some commentaries, a very poisonous horned adder the colour of sand that bites anyone who steps on it. Another would be a horse.
In the beautifully illustrated book, "Symbols of our Celto-Saxon Heritage", by the late Mr. W. H. Bennett, we find several references which I think it will be profitable for us to read. On page 26, the author writes:
"In considering the blessing of Dan we see that he is likened to two objects. ... The first object to which Dan is likened is definitely stated to be a Serpent. The second is implied, being mentioned in relation to the first. It is a Horse, or a Horse and Rider, the Horse usually being white. Later, in Deuteronomy 33:22, Moses likened Dan to a Lion. As this Lion was a secondary emblem only and the same as Judah's official emblem, it was never used. Consequently, the Serpent and the White Horse remained the emblems of the Tribe of Dan."
On page 47, Mr. Bennett has this to say:
"While the Serpent, the official emblem of the Tribe of Dan, seems to have been largely superseded by his secondary emblem, a Horse, and does not appear in the national Arms of Britain or those of the other Celto-Saxon nations, nevertheless, it does appear as a local emblem in some places and also in the Arms of some old families.
Even though not generally used, it evidently had a strong attachment for many Celto-Saxons, for it appears in the Arms of Buxton and Barrow-in-Furness in England; in the Crest of Livingston, Earl of Linlithgow; and in those of the Chiefs of the Robertson and Morrison Clans in Scotland. In the Netherlands it appears in at least twenty municipal Arms.
When the newly-formed United States of America was choosing a national emblem, the Serpent was a serious contender for the position eventually given to the Eagle. Further, the Serpent was the official emblem of several of the military and naval units of the United States Revolutionary Forces."
I might interject at this point that connected with the use of this symbol of a snake during the American Revolution, the usual display was in combination with the motto "Don't Tread On Me". Continuing with the quotation from Mr. Bennett's book:
"Dan's secondary emblem, a Horse, usually pictured as white and sometimes with a rider, was a favourite emblem of the Saxons long before their invasion of Britain. This is shown by the fact that a Horse is still the emblem of several sections of the Celto-Saxons in Europe - those whose ancestors did not move on into Britain with the main body. In Denmark a White Horse appears on the shield in the Royal Arms and in the Municipal Arms of Horsens, Holstebro, Augustenborg, and a red one in those of Frederiksborg Slotssogn.
In the Netherlands a Horse appears on the shield or as a supporter in the Arms of Assendelft, Hoogkarspel, Westerbork, Zuidlaren, Baarn, Renkum, Workhoven and several others. It is also the emblem of several of the former German principalities and of Lithuania.
In England it is the emblem of the County of Kent and it also appears in the Arms of Ramsgate and Margate. Then there are the ancient White Horses cut into the turf on the hillsides in several parts of England.
In Scotland a White Horse is a part of the official emblem of Jedburgh and also appears in the Crests of Cochrane, Earl of Dundonald; Dunbar of Mochrum; Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell; Trotter of Catchilraw; and as supporters in the arms of the Chief of the Clan Cumming.
That the Northern Wing of the great Saxon migration across Europe did use Dan's emblems, a serpent and a horse, is evidenced by a plate or plaque from an ancient ship burial somewhere between the years A.D. 600-900 near Stockholm, Sweden. This is now in the Stockholm Museum."
The symbol of a snake is an interesting one, and I may have more to suggest regarding it when we come to the list of the plagues upon Egypt at the time leading up to the Exodus.
An eagle was to be a symbol of Dan when this tribe was given prominence in association with two related tribes on the northern side of the Israel encampments in the Exodus wanderings.
We next read, in Genesis 49:19, a short verse which conveys Jacob-Israel's words to Gad, the firstborn of the two sons of Zilpah, Leah's maid, and verse 20, almost equally short, conveys Jacob-Israel's words to Zilpah's youngest son, Asher:
19. Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last.
20. Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties.
That does not seem to be much of a blessing to each of these two tribes, but we should look at the commentaries before dismissing them and passing on to the next. Keil and Delitzsch indicate a similarity connecting the name, Gad, in the Hebrew, with the word meaning to press or to press the heel. I am reminded of the English word "Goad" at this point, for the commentary continues by conveying a further extention in the idea of bravely pressing any attacker and putting such to flight - making him "take to his heels" as the expression puts it.
Asher's blessing is that of productive sustenance, and the Commentary reminds us that upon entering the Promised Land, Asher received the fertile allotment of the lowlands of Carmel, near Tyre and the Mediterranean Sea, "abounding in wheat and oil, with which Solomon supplied the household of king Hiram" (I Kings 5:11).
On page 28 of Mr. Bennett's book, he writes: "Just what is meant by `royal dainties' is uncertain, but in that day it seems likely that they would include wine, and this would require a cup or some similar vessel to put it in. From this came Asher's emblem, a covered Cup or Goblet."
The last of the four sons of the handmaids was Naphtali, the second son of Bilhah, and to this son, Jacob-Israel says:
21. Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.
Here, Mr. Bennett says that "The blessing of Naphtali is short and promises nothing...Naphtali is here likened to a freed Hind and so his emblem became a Leaping Hind. This was Naphtali's official emblem as used in ancient Israel. However, there are some indications that in the course of time this female deer was gradually replaced by the male, so that today a Stag is the equivalent of Naphtali's emblem, the Hind."
Keil and Delitzsch mention that "The hind or gazelle is a simile of a warrior who is skilful and swift in his movements." II Samuel 2:18 and I Chronicles 12:8 are two passages in which this simile is used in Scripture.
The Companion Bible joins Keil and Delitzsch in noting, of the phrase "goodly words", that this points to the Song of Deborah (Judges 5:18), in which the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali, together with other elements of Israel, are commended on their great military victory over the forces of Canaan who were led by Sisera.
Next week we shall continue our study of the words of Jacob-Israel to the remaining sons, and we shall trace further, the resultant symbols of the tribes.
10 January, 1993
By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.
In our weekly Bible Studies, we are presently following the Genesis account which details the manner by which Almighty God is beginning to select and to prepare a stream of mankind through whom He will act in order to bring His mercy to a fallen humanity.
God has called the aged Abraham out from among his people, and from the descendants of Abraham, God has selected the Patriarch Isaac and in turn, Isaac's son Jacob, to whom God has imparted the new name, "Israel."
To Israel's twelve sons, then, will fall God's assignment to form a servant nation within which God plans to develop His mighty purposes. Long-time listeners to our programmes will know that we, of the British-Israel-World Federation, see the fulfilment of these prophetic purposes to have come about in the present-day Anglo-Celto-Saxon world.
Jacob-Israel is, from his death-bed, bestowing prophetic blessings upon each son, and the tribal descendants to develop therefrom in the latter days. Not all of Jacob's sons, however, manifest identical characteristics. Indeed, in several cases it seems from the original Hebrew that Jacob used the name of a son in a prophetic play on words as he designated that son's characteristics, and hence the latter-day developments of the son's tribal offspring.
In Genesis 49, we have, in our imagination, joined the family to hear these prophetic tribal designations. Coupled to the prophetic pronouncement given to each son, there will develop the tribal symbol, which will be applied to each son's tribal descendants. This has now been done in the cases of the sons of Leah, and to each of the two handmaids. The two sons of Rachel, the most beloved of Jacob's wives, now approach to receive their blessings. We shall concentrate on that granted to the eldest for the remainder of today's talk, and leave the younger son for consideration next week.
Joseph, by his wisdom, forbearance and Godly character, holds the highest authority under Pharaoh. During the seven years of intense famine, he had been the means of saving the entire family from starvation and promoting them all to wealth and favour in Egypt. Can we imagine the expectation of the assemblage as they anticipate what Jacob-Israel will now prophecy to Joseph? Will any sign of envy be raised in the hearts of the other brothers if the dispositions prove to be magnificent? Probably there is not one person present who will look with anything but favour upon the share which Joseph now receives. Let us listen as Jacob speaks to Joseph, starting at Genesis 49:22:
22. Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall:
23. The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him:
24. But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)
25. Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb:
26. The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.
These are magnificent blessings, and we ought to remember that these are not just the fond fatherly words of Jacob expressing his love for his favourite son by words of human wishing or even human hopes. Jacob is a Prophet of The Almighty God. These are the God-inspired words of a far-reaching series of prophecies which are to last, and to develop and become manifest to the world in the latter days. They are God's designation of that which will befall the descendants of this portion of Israel's descendants as this age draws to its close.
As Christian believers in the certainty and reliability of God's word, we must study these words most carefully. We must be in a position to verify that these promises have received fulfilment. We must be able to show to the world that the prophecies were real, and that God has both the foreknowledge and the power to bring them about. If God's word is to be demonstrably vindicated, we must not assume any subsequent failure of His plans. There can be no substitute group of people "thrown into the breach", so to speak, upon a failure of Joseph's descendants to "measure up", for these are not conditional pronouncements.
No corporate church body can substitute for the tribal descendants designated to receive these specific blessings. Even a Jewish state cannot receive them, for the most eminent of Jewish authorities claim essentially no more than tribal relationship to Judah, Benjamin and Levi. These prophecies of Jacob-Israel relate, not to the descendants of Judah, not to the descendants of Levi, nor even to those of Benjamin, but to the descendants of Joseph alone. That is what this passage specifically tells us.
Let us look at the actual promises. Mr. Bennett's book puts the matter well. He writes:
"In considering the blessing given to Joseph we must remember that his descendants were divided into two tribes, bearing the names of his two sons Ephraim and Manasseh. Consequently, the blessing given to Joseph was in part inherited by both of these tribes, and in part divided between them."
After quoting the applicable verses, Mr. Bennett continues:
"Joseph is here likened to a Bough or Branch which, in view of other statements in the Bible referring to Israel as an Olive Tree (Romans 11:24), has always been understood to be an Olive Branch. In the next verse enemy archers are said to shoot at Joseph and, as archers shoot arrows, it follows that there is an implied relationship between him and some arrows."
Mr. Bennett then proceeds to examine the Mosaic blessings upon Joseph, involving the concepts of a bullock, a horn and an unicorn, from Deuteronomy 33:17, and, adding these symbols to the list, he then shows that Joseph's sons may display between them, all of the above symbols. The descendants of Ephraim today display the Ox, the Unicorn and the Horn as emblems while Manasseh displays the olive branch and the bundle of arrows.
The statement "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall" may find fulfilment in the spreading of the United States across the Atlantic Ocean from Britain and her nearby Israel relatives of Brittany and Holland. The actual word here translated "branches" is the Hebrew word "bath", and means "daughters".
Joseph's descendants are, by God's strength, to be powerful in replying to all who may attack them, as we see in the words "his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob."
Jacob continues with the words "from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel", a curious statement which is variously interpreted. We would see this as Jacob's assignation of the Stone called Jacob's Pillow to the care of Joseph's descendants.
When Jacob, with his whole clan, was evacuating the Promised Land for generations to come, would he not, under God's directing spirit, have arranged to bring from Bethel that stone which he had called "God's House", heavy though it might have been? It could easily have been transported in one of those many Egyptian wagons which Joseph, with the authority of Pharaoh, had provided for the move. When considering the Stone's further disposition, what would be more natural than for Jacob to secure its care in the hands of Joseph and those of his descendants.
Evidently the Stone was present in Egypt, for it was later to follow the tribes into the Exodus wilderness and there on two separate occasions to provide water to the Israelites. St. Paul speaks of this to the Israelitish Corinthian descendants in I Corinthians 10:1-4, making use of the Stone's then known history as a symbol for the equivalent work of Christ among His people as they proceeded through the desert.
Jacob is not through with his blessing to Joseph. He speaks of the "God of thy father, who shall help thee" and "the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb." The meaning of that should be quite obvious, but the continuation is sometimes overlooked. Jacob continues: "The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren." Now if Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had received a promise of inheritance in the Promised Land, the words now uttered must mean the geographical extension of these promises, in Joseph's case, to the uttermost parts of the earth - to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills, wherever these may exist on the earth! In other words, if God's prophecies be true, This tribal blessing must see fulfilment in a company of nations whose extent is world encompassing! Only the British Commonwealth and the United States have ever extended their sway to that extent. This is a further confirmation of the thesis which we hold. They are Israel's descendants!
We have run out of time for today, and so, we shall have to leave the blessing of Benjamin, and what follows to our next broadcast.
17 January, 1993
By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.
On our last programme we were examining, from the Genesis account, the various prophetic blessings which the aged, and now dying Jacob-Israel has been giving to each of his sons, gathered about his bed. We have been taking our Scripture readings from Genesis 49, and we have now arrived at verse 27, wherein Jacob-Israel is about to speak to the youngest of his sons, the second son of his beloved Rachel. Benjamin has been listening to the words which his father spoke to all the other brothers, and now it is his turn to become the focal point of attention. What will his aged father say, concerning himself?
We have been so to speak, in our imagination, listening in to these great prophetic statements as each son has moved forward to receive his father's final blessing for himself and the members of his tribe for all history to come. Jacob has strengthened himself in order to impart these statements, and we may take from that the idea that he is speaking now as Israel, the prophet of God, and his words pertain to the unfolding of the history applying to the descendants of each son in the latter days, that is, the days in which we now find ourselves.
As we move in to listen closely, we hear Israel now pronounce the name of Benjamin, and we wonder what will be said of this last son's descendants, and what the tribal ensign of that tribe in Israel will be. We read the words of Genesis 49:27 as Jacob speaks:
27. Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil.
That is all Jacob says to him. What can we take from that short sentence? It seems almost as though Jacob feels his end approaching, and wants to form his words swiftly, without extraneous details. But these are prophetic words from The Almighty. Can we find anything in scripture or in the commentaries that will help us?
The Keil and Delitzsch Commentary translates the verse which conveys Jacob's blessing to Benjamin thus: "Benjamin - a wolf, which tears in pieces; in the morning he devours prey, and in the evening he divides spoil." It follows this with the comment that "Morning and evening together suggest the idea of incessant and victorious capture of booty. The warlike character which the patriarch here attributes to Benjamin was manifested by that tribe, not only in the war which he waged with all the tribes on account of their wickedness in Gibeah...but on other occasions also."
Other Commentaries and references generally combine to focus the attention of the researcher upon a set of Scriptural references yielding evidence to support the characterisation of the Tribe of Benjamin as one containing noteworthy and exceedingly capable warriors and bold defenders of their people.
The Judge Ehud, under whose leadership the Israelites gained freedom from oppressors for eighty years, and also King Saul and his son Jonathan came of this tribe, as did Queen Esther and her cousin Mordecai, and also Saul of Tarsus who became the Apostle Paul. In II Chron. 14:8 King Asa called "...out of Benjamin, that bare shields and drew bows, two hundred and fourscore thousand: all these were mighty men of valour."
In I Samuel 13 Jonathan & his armour bearer slew about twenty in a Philistine garrison, and this started a panic and tumult among the enemy, encouraged those Hebrews who had been with the Philistines before, and also the Israelites hidden in Mount Ephraim to join in smashing the enemy forces. This was the start of a series of victories against Moab, Ammon, Edom, the kings of Zovah, the Philistines, and the Amalekites.
I Chronicles 8 lists Benjamin's descendants, and verse 40 states, of one of these, Ulam, that his sons "were mighty men of valour, archers, and had many sons, and sons' sons, an hundred and fifty."
However their willingness to take the sword was most particularly demonstrated by their noteworthy clan loyalty to their own tribe.
The refusal of the Benjamites to seek among their own clan members for the guilty parties in the matter of the killing of the Levite's concubine, and their defence against the rest of the tribes of Israel recorded in Judges 20 and 21 illustrates this trait. It led, on that occasion, to disaster, and an almost total wiping out of the tribe of Benjamin. Only 600 young men of Benjamin fled and escaped to the rock Rimmon, evidently a defensive position perhaps 6 miles from Gibeah.
No women of Benjamin were left to become wives to them, and by a great oath, no other contingent of Israel present at Mizpeh where the resolution was made to destroy the guilty Benjamites could give them of their daughters to wife. Indeed, they had covenanted to put to death any of the tribes of Israel which did not participate at the taking of that oath and preparation to attack Benjamin.
Later, desiring that no tribe of Israel be entirely and permanently eliminated, the victors found a rather savage solution. They numbered those present to take the oath, and none of Jabesh-gilead were present on that occasion, so evidently the people of Jabesh-gilead had been unwilling to war against Benjamin. The rest of Israel thereupon attacked that city, and killed everyone except 400 young virgins there whom they collected and presented to the remnant young men of Benjamin for wives. The other two hundred were told to lie in wait in the vineyards of Shiloh at the time of an annual feast at that place, and at that festival to capture wives for themselves from among those maidens of Shiloh, which lies north of Gibeah.
It has, incidentally, been suggested that this Biblical incident is the actual source of the mythical rape of the Sabine women. That ancient Roman story says that the men of Romulus seized the Sabine women during a festival held north-west of Rome, and that when the Sabines attacked Rome the women placed themselves between the armies to stop the battle That is what these maidens of Shiloh, in effect, were caused to do for the remnant of Benjamin in Rimmon at the conclusion of this war between the tribes of Israel. Is it of significance, then, that the Wolf, the emblem of Benjamin, was the mythical foster-mother which suckled Romulus and Remus, the exposed twin sons of Mars, the god of war? Traditionally Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C.. It is also curious that the names "Rimmon" and "Rome" have a suggestive similarity of sound.
In any event, this whole disastrous incident in the history of Benjamin becomes significant in I Samuel 11 where we read of the threat which Nahash the Ammonite made against the city of Jabesh-gilead at the beginning of King Saul's reign. The Ammonites threatened to put out the right eyes of all in the town as a demonstration of superiority over all Israel. In verse 6 we are told "And the spirit of God came upon Saul when he heard those tidings" Saul imposed conscription upon Israel and Judah, and 300,000 men of Israel and 30,000 men of Judah followed him to slay the Ammonites. As King Saul was a descendant of Benjamin, we may suppose that the same close tribal loyalty of the Benjamites motivated Saul's commitment to save that town and all its inhabitants on this later occasion.
The New Bible Dictionary, under the heading "Benjamin", reminds us that the name which Benjamin's mother, Rachel, gave to him when she was dying in childbirth was Benoni, meaning "son of my sorrow", but Jacob had named him Benjamin which means "son of the right hand", as Young's Concordance also confirms.
Curiously, the tribe of Benjamin is later noted for the characteristic of being lefthanded. I wonder if the young Benjamin offered his left hand when Jacob's right hand helped him in taking his first steps?
In the Biblical record of that matter of the tribal defence of the guilty parties found in Judges 20:16 it says of Benjamin's troops "Among all this people there were seven hundred chosen men lefthanded; every one could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss."
Concerning the verse which conveys Jacob's blessing to Benjamin, The Companion Bible draws our attention to connected passages of scripture. It notes Judges 3:15 which says "But when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man left-handed" That ability of left-handedness was the means by which he drew a hidden dagger and slew Eglon, the King of Moab.
Mr. W. H. Bennett, in his beautifully illustrated book, "Symbols of our Celto-Saxon Heritage", (available, incidentally, through our bookrooms), treats of the matter of Benjamin's blessing in this manner: He states on pages 62 and 63:
"In considering the Wolf as the emblem of Benjamin, we should remember that, after the division of the Twelve Tribes into two nations, the Tribe of Benjamin was so closely tied to the much larger Tribe of Judah, and for so long a time, that its own identity was partially obscured. Further, during the nearly four hundred years that these two tribes, Judah and Benjamin, formed the Kingdom of Judah, the national emblem of the kingdom was the Lion of Judah. Consequently, the Wolf was seldom used and in time became more of a tribal memory than a used emblem.
However, there is some evidence which suggests that among the Northmen or Norsemen, the people who formed the northern wing of the Saxon migration across Europe, there were some who used the Wolf as an emblem. Many of these settled in Scandinavia, giving their name to Norway and later to Normandy in France.
So far this writer has been unable to check the accuracy of the claim that the emblem of the Norsemen who invaded and settled in France was a Wolf, and that some of their descendants, the Norman invaders of England, also had the Wolf as their emblem. However, according to an item of the Research Department of the British-Israel World Federation, London, England, which appeared in the New Vision for July 1969, we read:
`It is a matter of the greatest interest that Hugh Lupus, nephew of William the Conqueror, used the Wolf as his personal device at the time that Heraldry was first introduced.'
We should also note the claim that Norway was about to give official recognition to the Wolf as a racial emblem of its people just before the Germans took over the country in the Second World War. This claim is that a monument consisting of a column with a Lion at the top and with its base guarded by four Wolves was in process of preparation when the Germans struck. Though the wooden prototype of this column disappeared during the German occupation, a photograph of it was taken and is reproduced herewith."
From the photograph in the book which accompanies these words, the monument would seem to be a most worthy one and should once again be undertaken, in order to establish and confirm this link with an honourable and noteworthy past.
We shall continue this study of the closing moments of Jacob's life on our next programme.
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