BIBLE STUDY SERIES #95, 96 and 97

12 September, 1993

THE NINTH PLAGUE

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our present series of Bible Studies, has followed the Biblical account of God's Great Plan whereby He is preparing to lead His people, His nation of Israel, out of Egyptian bondage. Once freed of their oppressors, Israel is to form the nucleus of the Kingdom of God upon the earth, functioning under the Kingship and administration of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

We of the British-Israel-World Federation believe that the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the world today are the literal descendants of those same Israelites and I believe that they are presently in the process of passing through a parallel pattern of Exodus events out of economic, political and religious bondage. Thus we are fulfilling a prophecy of which the Exodus of ancient time was a type.

Today, we have come to the study of the tenth of thirteen mighty signs and wonders which the Psalmist reviews in Psalm 105:23-45, through which The Almighty God forced Pharaoh to release His people. The particular plague at which we now have arrived is commonly known as the Ninth Plague, and we shall find it described in today's Bible passage, taken from Exodus 10:21-29. I shall read that passage with appropriate insertions by way of comment.

21. And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
22. And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:
23. They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

Regarding this, The New Bible Dictionary, Item: "Plagues Of Egypt", states "This was a khamsin dust-storm, but no ordinary one. The heavy inundation had brought down and deposited masses of `red earth', now dried out as a fine dust over the land. The effect of this when whirled up by a khamsin wind would be to make the air extraordinarily thick and dark, blotting out the light of the sun. The `three days' of Exodus x.23 is the known length of a khamsin. The intensity of the khamsin may suggest that it was early in the season, and would thus come in March. If the Israelites were dwelling in the region of Wadi Tumilat as their part of Goshen, they would miss the worst effects of this plague."

Perhaps we might note that the non-Biblical Book of Jasher confirms this account, but adds that some in Israel who would not follow Moses' instructions also died during those days. Spiritual darkness had, by now settled upon Pharaoh and the Egyptian taskmasters so perhaps it is appropriate that this sign should demonstrate that fact by a physical manifestation appropriate to their spiritual condition. This darkness occurred just about the time when Israel was about to pass through their actual Exodus. Similarly, at Christ's "exodos", during the Crucifixion, Matthew 27:45 states: "Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour." "Exodos" is the Greek word used in Luke 9:31 to indicate the Crucifixion, as the Companion Bible notes.

24. And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you.
25. And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.

I have always particularly appreciated the absolute affirmation in the words of Moses in the next verse as he continues:

26. Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.

We here see that Israel is not to keep one foot in Egypt while departing therefrom using the other. The departure of Israel is to form a total break with the past. Nothing is to be left behind which might be a cause of desire to return to that bondage, once Israel has gone forth into the new life to which God is leading them. This theme might well be used, also, to explain the attitude required of a Christian once having made a decision to depart the old life.

27. But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.
28. And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.
29. And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.

We have been making a tabulation of the various signs and wonders, including the ten plagues upon Pharaoh's Egypt, by filling in appropriate notes below the following ten headings: 1. Sign or Wonder, 2. Month of Natural Prominence, 3. Biblical Reference, 4. Warning If Any, 5. Place of Warning, 6. Egyptian god Over-ruled, 7. Magicians' Response, 8. Pharaoh's Response, 9. Equivalent Israelite Tribal Symbol, 10. Israelite Tribe. Each line below those headings is devoted to the details concerning one sign or plague.

In our present examination, the sign is number 10 and it is Plague number 9. It is "Three Days of Darkness". As the assumed cause of this darkness is a desert khamsin blowing from the South-south-west, and thus from the Sahara Desert, the most likely time of year is said to be the month of March, with a salty dust and wind from the south and then from the north-west. Our Biblical reference is Exodus 10:21-29. No warning is given by Moses and this is the third such occasion wherein a triplet of three plagues ends with one wherein no such warning is granted to Pharaoh.

In this instance, we will be in little doubt that this plague was directly designed to confront and demean the Egyptian Sun-god, Ra. As the New Bible Commentary explains, of the Egyptians "Their terror would be all the greater because Ra, the sun-god, was one of their chief deities. If he was defeated, all was lost."

"Egyptian Mythology", prepared by Paul Hamlyn Limited, to which I have made frequent reference in recent broadcasts yields some pertinent information concerning this god. It states "Ra (or Re or Phra), which probably signifies `Creator', is the name of the sun, sovereign lord of the sky. He had his principal sanctuary at Heleopolis. The priests of this city affirmed that it was here that Ra first manifested himself on the primeval hill which rose from Nun..." (that is the primordial waste of waters) "...in the stone object in the form of an obelisk, which represented a sun's ray. The obelisk was called the benben stone and was piously preserved in the temple named for this reason Het Benben - the `palace of the obelisk'."

In another passage, this reference states "The forms and names of Ra are innumerable and the Litanies of the Sun, engraved at the entrance of the royal tombs, enumerate no fewer that seventy-five. One of the most important is as a figure with the head of a falcon, surmounted by a disk bearing the uraeus, the terrible sacred serpent who is described as spitting flames which destroy the god's enemies." Upon reading that description, we may readily understand how effective three days of darkness would be as a demonstration of total dominance by Yahweh, the God of Israel over Ra, god of the Egyptians!

We pass along to record Pharaoh's response, which is to allow all the Israelites to go out to worship their God, but to retain all their flocks and herds, hoping by this means to deter them from permanent departure. As the New Bible Commentary notes, Pharaoh's outburst in saying "Get thee from me" reveals "The exasperated temper of a man who rebels against his conscience and finds that God makes no concessions. In refusing to see Moses again Pharaoh refused his only means of deliverance. It was to plead for mercy that he had hitherto called Moses to stand before him... Moses continues to speak to Pharaoh until he finally leaves him at xi.8, xi.1-3 being in parenthesis."

When we review the remaining Israelite tribal ensigns we find that one of the remaining tribes not yet assigned to counter-point a plague in our Study Table apparently had two banners, either or both of which might be appropriate to assign to this one. The Tribe of Issachar had, according to one authority, an ensign which included the Sun, Moon and Stars, (the meaning possibly being derived from combining Genesis 1:14 with a reputation mentioned in I Chronicles 12:32), while other authorities describe a banner displaying a heavily laden ass, couching down between two burdens.

In Genesis 49:14-15, Jacob had prophesied "Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens. And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute." How amazingly appropriate! For three days there has been a lack of light from heaven upon the Egyptians, which corresponds to the three heavenly lights on one of Issachar's banners, and the fact that, for three days and nights we read of the Egyptians that "they saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days" would correspond to the ass of Issachar which "couched down."

Thus, once again, Almighty God has made a difference between a tribe of Israel and the Egyptians who were oppressing them, as He had stated to Pharaoh by the mouth of Moses in Exodus 8:22-23; a passage wherein we find "I will put a division between my people and thy people...", and likewise in Exodus 9:4 which says that "the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt..."

We shall continue these studies on the next programme.

19 September, 1993

THE ELEVENTH SIGN - WAGE SETTLEMENT

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Recently, we have been following the Biblical account of the events leading up to the Exodus of the Children of Israel from Pharaoh's Egypt. Today's Biblical Study is one in a consecutive sequence which I began nearly two years ago with an examination of the Call of Abram by Almighty God to a new existence apart from his people and former country. This study sequence then traced God's Great Plan down through the miracle birth of Isaac, the events of Jacob's life, and the development of Jacob's large tribal family.

We saw how Jacob's favourite son, Joseph, was sold into Egyptian slavery, and later, how this wise, capable, God-fearing son of Jacob received promotion to the highest authority under Pharaoh, and thus had become the means of sustenance for his entire Israelite clan when famine forced them to join him in that foreign land.

Later, we followed the Biblical account of God's Great Plan whereby He prepared to lead His people, His nation of Israel, out of Egyptian bondage. All these former talks, incidentally, are recorded on audio cassettes which are still obtainable through our Tape Ministry.

Once freed of their oppressors, Israel is to form the nucleus of the Kingdom of God upon the earth, functioning under the Kingship and administration of Our Lord Jesus Christ. We of the British-Israel-World Federation believe that the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the world today are the literal descendants of those same Israelites and I believe that they are presently in the process of passing through a parallel pattern of Exodus events out of economic, political and religious bondage. Thus we are fulfilling a prophecy of which the Exodus of ancient time was a type.

We have now studied the first ten of God's signs and wonders which had been exerting increasing pressure upon the Pharaoh of Moses' generation, and which were designed to manifest miraculous division between Israel and Egypt. Nine of these, prior to this point, are generally recognized in the commentaries as Plagues upon Egypt. They were to break the grip of Pharaoh and his multitude of gods, and to release those Israelites in bondage, who were at this time continuing to make bricks without straw, and to build the treasure cities for Pharaoh. Our modern equivalent, I believe, is the malfunctioning debt monetary system. One further recognized Plague is to follow, but there are more than ten signs and wonders involved in the Exodus climax.

We have now arrived at the study of the eleventh of these thirteen mighty signs and wonders which the Psalmist reviews in Psalm 105:23-45. Through the effects of these The Almighty God forced Pharaoh to release His people. Today's topic, Israel's acquisition of wealth from the Egyptians, like the first sign, that of Moses' Rod which became a serpent before Pharaoh, is omitted from the list of recognized Plagues, but I would consider the result of the events described in today's short scriptures to have been quite an unexpected "wonder" by all the Israelites except, perhaps, Moses and Aaron, and to have its part in the sequence. It must, I believe, take its place as one more of those events which demeaned and countered the authority of Egypt's gods and goddesses, and it, like the rest, bears examination in that a tribal emblem among the Tribes of Israel counter-points the dismay of the Egyptians.

I might, before continuing, explain that the Biblical account which follows in Exodus 12 will insert a lengthy passage which recounts Moses' instructions to the Israelites concerning the institution of Passover. We have to realise that, as so often happens when one seeks to write an historical account, the threads of various themes must be followed individually, one after the other in that account, although all the braided events may have happened more or less simultaneously.

In the present account, God's word gave advance notice and instructions through Moses to Israel which were to be implemented over the period during which a warning was imparted to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians. Indeed, the non-Biblical Book of Jasher gives an account in which the tenth plague, the deaths of the Egyptian firstborn, coincided with Passover, and preceded, and was responsible for, the transfer of wealth to Israel. However, in order to study the Scriptural account in successive passages as the Bible records it, and to simplify our continuing development of the Study Table which summarises these signs and wonders under its ten columns, I have to draw together a passage from Exodus 11:1-3 and another related continuation in a passage which is recorded in Exodus 12:35-36, taking these two passages together to form the main theme of today's study.

I am reading Exodus 11:1-3 and I shall add appropriate comments.

1. And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.
2. Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.
3. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.

The New Bible Commentary explains that these three verses are a parenthetical inclusion. It states that the first words of verse 1, "And the LORD said...", are actually written in pluperfect tense, recording a word of God to Moses given before he went into the latest interview with Pharaoh which followed upon the three days of darkness. The sentence should read "And the LORD had said..." We might also note that the plague in verse 1 does not refer to Israel's receipt of wealth, the focus of our attention in today's study, but to the dreadful culmination of the sequence of ten plagues in the deaths of the Egyptian firstborn.

For more than a generation, (indeed possibly 210 years if we correctly calculate the Biblical dates surrounding the experience of Israel in Egypt), Pharaoh and his taskmasters had held the Israelites to their labours without payment of any wages. Latterly, even the golden straw with which they had at one time supplied the brick-makers was no longer being given to them. Back wages had, by now, accumulated to no inconsiderable sum, and now "pay-day" had arrived.

Let us read the record of Exodus 12:35-36:
35. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
36. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.

The New Bible Commentary offers the explanation regarding the use of the word "borrowed" in verse 35, and "Lent" in verse 36, that a better translation might be "let them have", as in the RV.

The Companion Bible notes of the translation "borrow" that "This is a most unfortunate rendering of Hebrew sha-al, to ask." Out of 168 occurrences, it states, only six times is it translated "borrow", but on 162 occasions, "ask", "beg", "require", etc., in connection with jewels or articles or vessels.

The non-Biblical Book of Jasher, Chapter LXXX:59 states: "And all the Egyptians sent the Israelites forth, with great riches, sheep and oxen and precious things, according to the oath of the Lord between him and our father Abraham." Verse 61 of that source continues: "And the children of Israel asked of the Egyptians, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and the children of Israel stripped the Egyptians." This event fulfilled God's prophetic promise recorded in Exodus 3:21-22, which states:

21. And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty:
22. But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.

The New Bible Dictionary, Item "Mining And Metals", states a pertinent passage under the sub-heading "Gold". It says that "Gold was prescribed for use in the most important furnishings in the Mosaic tabernacle (Ex. xxv) and in Solomon's Temple (I Ki. vi). The metal was especially abundant in the alluvium of the eastern desert of Egypt, and the Israelites must have removed large quantities of it at the Exodus." Regarding sources of metals, that reference adds, under the sub-heading "Silver" that "Three or four localities occur in the eastern desert of Egypt also."

We are now in a position to fill in the next line on our Study Table. Each line below the following headings is devoted to the details concerning one sign or plague. The headings are: 1. Sign or Wonder, 2. Month of Natural Prominence, 3. Biblical Reference, 4. Warning If Any, 5. Place of Warning, 6. Egyptian god Over-ruled, 7. Magicians' Response, 8. Pharaoh's Response, 9. Equivalent Israelite Tribal Symbol, 10. Israelite Tribe.

The sign is God's oversight in leading the Egyptians to volunteer wealth of all required sorts to Israel. The month is that of the first Passover. The Companion Bible note states "Abib, or `green-ear-month'... Becomes the first month, and the fifteenth the ruling date henceforth... Afterward called Nisan." Keil and Delitzsch indicate that "It corresponds very nearly to our April." Our Biblical reference is Exodus 11:1-3 and 12:35-36.

Egyptian Mythology, prepared by Paul Hamlyn Limited, tells us of the Egyptian god Upuaut, a wolf-headed god, the name signifying "`He who opens the way'. In prehistoric representations we see the wolf-god, borne high upon his standard, guiding the warriors of his tribe into enemy territory... Sometimes he is also shown piloting the sun's boat during its nocturnal voyage." As a former warrior god, he was associated with conquest, and probably, by extension, the confiscation of booty. However the Egyptian gods that were demeaned on this occasion would have to include all gold and silver idols in the land.

The corresponding Israelite ensign, then, must be that of Benjamin. Jacob, in Genesis 49:27 had stated "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil." What better counter-pointing match of symbol could we find?

We shall continue this study on our next programme.

26 September, 1993

PASSOVER - PART I

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

In our present series of Bible Studies, we have followed the Biblical account of God's Great Plan whereby He is preparing to lead His people, His nation of Israel, out of Egyptian bondage. Once freed of their oppressors, Israel is to form the nucleus of the Kingdom of God upon the earth, functioning under the Kingship and administration of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

We of the British-Israel-World Federation believe that the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples of the world today are the literal descendants of those same Israelites and I believe that they are presently in the process of passing through a parallel pattern of Exodus events out of economic, political and religious bondage. Thus we are fulfilling a prophecy of which the Exodus of ancient time was a type.

Today, we have come to the study of the inauguration of that great festival called The Passover which followed the tenth of thirteen mighty signs and wonders which the Psalmist reviews in Psalm 105:23-45, through which The Almighty God forced Pharaoh to release His people.

In previous studies we have examined each scripture passage in proper order, and I wish to retain that scriptural sequence today for purposes of continuity. The scripture contained in Exodus 11 is inserted at this time in order to reveal the circumstances and to set the stage, so to speak, providing the foundation for what immediately follows. I shall read that passage beginning with Exodus 11:1. However, as our time is limited, I shall pass over our more intensive examination and comments on this passage until a later programme in this series.

1. And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.
2. Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.
3. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.
4. And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:
5. And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.
6. And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.
7. But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.
8. And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.
9. And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.
10. And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Because that account deals with the next plague upon Egypt, that passage will require repetition and further attention on the subsequent study which is to concentrate upon that aspect of the climax. However, as I said, it is necessary to have some concept of what is about to happen in order to appreciate the importance of the instructions which are now to be imparted to the children of Israel by Moses.

We are about to examine the institution of that great festival, The Passover (Hebrew "pesach", Greek "Pascha" in Young's Concordance). At suitable points throughout the remainder of this reading I shall insert some comments where I believe that they will be useful to us. The Scriptural record continues:

1. And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
2. This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

To this point, the Hebrew year had started near the Fall Equinox. The New Bible Commentary states of the term "The Beginning of months": "The Exodus was spiritually and nationally an epoch-making event... Hitherto the Jewish year had begun with the month Tisri near the autumnal equinox. The month of the Exodus, Abib, came at the vernal equinox. The Jews now begin their civil year at Tisri and their sacred year at Abib." The Companion Bible mentions that Abib means "green-ear month." Concerning the names of Hebrew months, the New Bible Dictionary, item "Calendar", states that Abib, "ripening of corn", Ziw (AV Zif), Ethanim and Bul, "are the only names extant from this period." That reference adds "In post-exilic times the month-names of the Babylonian calendar were followed." Thus as a table in the Dictionary shows, the ancient Israelitish name of the month "Abib" was replaced by the Jews, after their return from Babylon, with the name "Nisan." We continue at verse 3:

3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:
4. And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.

Of the word translated "lamb", The New Bible Commentary explains that "The word may equally well mean the young of a sheep or a goat (see verse 5), but it appears that lambs were almost universally used." Of "the house of their fathers" the commentary states "i.e. the family. The first and basic festival of Israel is a family one. The purity of family life is the foundation of spiritual as well as of national prosperity." Of the words "Too little", it says "Ten men, besides women and children, were considered the minimum to consume one lamb."

Before we continue, I think it might be well to emphasize that the family is still the most important building-block in the construction of the nation. Various forces at work among us today, seem to be doing everything possible to fragment, to tear apart and ultimately to destroy, the family unit. God will not favour such attempts, but we ought to be aware that, aimed as they are, at the development of a Satanic counterfeit world order, they are calculated to destroy Almighty God's plan for the development of His people. We pick up our account again at Verse 5:

5. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:

Referring us to I Peter 1:19, which says that we were not redeemed with corruptible things, "But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot", and to Hebrews 7:26 and 9:14, The New Bible Commentary then explains "Not only must all offerings to God be of the very best, but this lamb was to typify the spotless Lamb of God." Keil and Delitzsch state that it was to be a male "as taking the place of the male first-born of Israel..."

Hebrews 9:14 says: "How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?" Here we begin to realise what is the true message of the symbol portrayed in that Exodus Passover. We continue at verse 6:

6. And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
7. And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.

The time of sacrifice, literally "between the evenings", according to The New Bible Commentary, is usually taken as between three and five o'clock, so that "between the evenings" would be before the six o'clock start of the next day at dusk. Here we see how marvellously God has prepared the sequenced symbolism in history. Here, He is not only presenting His people with their final instructions preparatory to a vast national movement out from the home which they have occupied for many generations past, but He is at the same time, and through the very same event, making a national prophecy concerning Jesus Christ, the coming Saviour of His people, Who, in His Own flesh became "The Door", and His Crucifixion death was accomplished according to the stipulated hour.

In John 10:7, having in mind a shepherd who reclines across the entrance to a sheep-fold to prevent entry of a predator, we read "Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep."

Keil and Delitzsch state that "Some of the blood was to be put... upon the two posts and the lintel of the door of the house in which the lamb was eaten. This blood was to be to them a sign (verse 13); for when Jehovah passed through Egypt to smite the first-born, He would see the blood, and would spare these houses, and not permit the destroyer to enter them... The two posts with the lintel represented the door.. which they surrounded; and the doorway through which the house was entered stood for the house itself, as we may see from the frequent expression "in thy gates," for in thy towns... The threshold, which belonged to the door quite as much as the lintel, was not to be smeared with blood, in order that the blood might not be trodden under foot."

They continue: "By the smearing of the door-posts and lintel with blood, the house was expiated and consecrated on an altar. That the smearing with blood was to be regarded as an act of expiation, is evident from the simple fact, that a hyssop-bush was used for the purpose..." They further state "In Egypt the Israelites had no common altar; and for this reason, the houses in which they assembled for the Passover were consecrated as altars, and the persons found in them were thereby removed from the stroke of the destroyer."

We shall continue with the explanation regarding the Passover and the further developments of The Exodus on our next programme.

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