BIBLE STUDY SERIES #149, 150 AND 151

25 September, 1994

A WILLING OFFERING

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

Our present series of Bible Studies is following the theme of God's Great Plan for the regeneration of His Universe to accord with His perfect will. We have traced the course of that plan, which began with an examination of God's call to Abraham, down through the lives of his son, Isaac, and his grandson, Jacob, and on through Jacob's children as the family came to Egypt. The Bondage experience had followed, and the miraculous Exodus to the Wilderness of Sinai.

We have recently, in our imagination, found ourselves at the foot of Mount Sinai, and we have, so to speak, joined these people who have in the previous weeks agreed to form God's peculiar people, a separated nation of service to The Almighty. Moses, their leader by God's appointment, has now gone back into the awesome clouds at the summit of the mountain at God's command, and we can feel the slight impatience and uneasiness begin as he delays his return for Moses will have apparently disappeared from sight for forty days by the time that he again appears to the people. The Scriptural account takes our thoughts up the slopes of Sinai to join Moses in the latest encounter with The Almighty God.

The New Bible Commentary (Revised) explains, by way of an introductory thought, that "God is enthroned and manifested at Sinai, but Israel is not to stay at Sinai for ever. She must press on to Canaan, and God will go with her, and as she moves on He will dwell in the midst of His people."

Let us read today's Bible passage, taken from Exodus 25:1-9. As is my custom, I shall insert comments as we proceed.

1. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
2. Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offering.
3. And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and silver, and brass,

Succeeding verses continue the list, but let us stop for a moment to consider those first three verses. The Companion Bible notes that in verse 1, "The LORD" is, in Hebrew, "Jehovah", and in verse 2, it equates "children" with "sons." The offering mentioned in verse 2, it explains as "heave offering", and it refers us to "Appendix 43. II. viii." wherein we find T-rumah = the Heave offering, so called because it was lifted up on high in presentation to Jehovah for Himself alone. A connected reference is made to Exodus 29:27 for a further mention of this type of offering.

The New Bible Commentary introduces the comments on Exodus 25:1 to 31:18 under the heading "The Divine Plan For The Tabernacle." To the passage which we have just read, it applies the heading "Gifts for the tabernacle", and it treats of matters in connection with various verses in this passage. It begins by quoting from verse 2 "That giveth it willingly with his heart" and regarding that phrase it states "'Whose heart maketh him willing'(RV). The treasures enumerated in the following verses had been accumulated from their ancestors, from the Egyptians (xii. 35, 36) and from the Amalekites (xvii)." Of "Brass" (3), it says "More exactly copper or bronze." That is an observation which is confirmed in a Companion Bible note where it is given that brass, a mixture of copper and zinc, was unknown then, and this was probably copper or bronze, (a mixture of copper and tin). A Companion Bible note also draws attention to the fact that there is no iron in the tabernacle, which, as we may later discover, is symbolically significant.

Under the heading "Directions Concerning the Sanctuary and Priesthood", Keil and Delitzsch introduce this scripture in these words: "To give a definite external form to the covenant concluded with His people, and construct a visible bond of fellowship in which He might manifest Himself to the people and they might draw near to Him as their God, Jehovah told Moses that the Israelites were to erect Him a sanctuary, that He might dwell in the midst of them (chap. xxv.8). The construction and arrangement of this sanctuary were determined in all respects by God Himself, who showed to Moses, when upon the mountain, a pattern of the dwelling and its furniture, and prescribed with great minuteness both the form and materials of all the different parts of the sanctuary and all the things required for the sacred service. If the sanctuary was to answer its purpose, the erection of it could not be left to the inventive faculty of any man whatever, but must proceed from Him, who was there to manifest Himself to the nation, as the Holy One, in righteousness and grace. The people could only carry out what God appointed, and could only fulfil their covenant duty, by the readiness with which they supplied the materials required for the erection of the sanctuary and completed the work with their own hands. The divine directions extended to all the details, because they were all of importance in relation to the design of God. The account therefore is so elaborate, that it contains a description not only of the directions of God with reference to the whole and every separate part... but also of the execution of the work in all its details..." They explain the heave offering as "a gift lifted, or heaved by a man from his own property to present to the Lord..."

The list of things to be offered continues at verse 4.

4. And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair,
5. And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood,
6. Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense,
7. Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate.

Of "Blue, and purple, and scarlet (4)", The New Bible Commentary explains "i.e. yarn dyed these several colours." The Companion Bible adds the perceptive note that these colours are connected with the Crucifixion in Matthew 27:28 and John 19:2. White is mentioned last, as in Revelation 19. 13-14.

The Matthew reference is to the scarlet robe placed on Jesus in the governor's hall, and equated to purple in the Companion Bible note, while the reference in John is to a purple robe, thus placed by the soldiers in Pilate's hall. This "purple" translates the Greek "porphureos", a word used only here and in Revelation 18:16 (where Babylon the great has decked herself thus). The Revelation 19:13-14 reference is to the King of kings whose robe is "dipped in blood" while His followers wear "fine linen, white and clean." The relationship of the two colours, scarlet and white, seen in blood and cleanliness is summarised by the words of Revelation 1:5 describing Jesus Christ as "...him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood."

Keil and Delitzsch note that the "purple" of verse 4 was "of a dark blue shade, approaching black rather than bright blue." We of the British-Israel-World Federation, conscious of the identity of the Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples as descendants of those ancient Israelites, should be quick to note that this would be the blue which is generally used in the Union Jack, the Stars and Stripes, the flags of Australia and New Zealand, and those of a number of kindred nations. Indeed, (along with the purple and gold), the main colours of the Tabernacle were red, white and blue; a familiar combination found in such flags. Regrettably, Canada dropped that blue colour when the red maple-leaf flag was substituted for the red ensign some years ago, but blue, representative of heaven's promise, is retained in the flags of a number of Canadian provinces.

The New Bible Commentary continues with a note on the skins. It says that the words "Badgers' skins" in verse 5 translate the Hebrew "tahash." It says that "The badger is not found in those lands, and the name is probably of some sea animal such as a seal or a porpoise." "Shittim wood" in verse 5 is noted as "The wood of the acacia tree, hard and close-grained." Continuing at verse 8:

8. And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.
9. According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.

The New Bible Commentary continues at verse 8, noting "A sanctuary... Heb. miqdash, 'a place set apart', from the same root as qadosh, 'holy'." Of the phrase "That I may dwell among them", in verse 8, it states "Note that He does not say, 'dwell in it'. The Lord never taught that He was confined to an earthly structure (see 1 Ki. viii. 27), but the tabernacle and later the temple served to focus the attention of His people on the fact that the Lord was among them, and particularly that His presence was infinitely holy, so that access to Him could only be through the atoning sacrifices and the mediation of the High Priest."

When The Commentary comes to verse 9, it explains of the words "the pattern", that it was possibly given through a vision. Of "The tabernacle" it states "See xxix. 42n. The Heb. here is mishkan, 'a dwelling', from the same root as the verb 'dwell' in the previous verse. The Eng. word 'tabernacle' is also used in the AV to translate the Heb. 'ohel, 'a tent'. From Heb(rews) ix. 1-5 we learn that the sacred objects described in these chapters had a real, although temporary, spiritual value.

The Companion Bible points out that verses 3-7 list fifteen objects, which is 3 x 5, and it is thus with all numbers connected with the tabernacle which are multiples of five and the number five "Denotes Divine grace."

We are here about to find that the materials are for the purpose of creating a symbol which is to teach the people of their relationship to God through Jesus Christ. Here, five, the number associated with Grace is most appropriate, for it is by His Grace that we may find Salvation. Let us ponder the offer of that Grace and our appropriate response thereto as found in Romans 12:1: "I BESEECH you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service." We shall continue our theme next week.

2 October, 1994

THE ARK OF THE TABERNACLE - PART I

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

During the present series of Bible Studies we have been tracing God's Great Plan for the restoration of the Creation to a state agreeable to the divine pattern. That course of studies over the past several years has taken us from the Call of Abram, in Genesis Chapter 12 through the lives of his son, Isaac and grandson Jacob (renamed Israel), and the lives of Israel's progeny, the twelve Tribes of Israel, as they passed through the experience of Egyptian bondage, and later by God's divine interventions, the miracle of The Exodus. Now, as we read in Exodus 25, these tribes are at the foot of Mount Sinai, and there, with Moses acting as intermediary, they have agreed to become God's peculiar servant people by the covenant of national marriage which is sometimes termed the Mosaic Covenant.

Their contract involved the reception of a set of national laws called the Ten Commandments, the Judgments by which guidance was made available regarding the spirit of their application, and the blood symbol of sacrifice to cleanse them of their sinful state as they stood before The LORD.

On our last programme, we were giving our attention to Exodus 25:1-9, a passage which forms an introduction to the matter of providing a physical focal point for national devotions at this time; The Tabernacle of The LORD, Who would thereby symbolise His presence among His people. To this end, the people had been instructed to bring an offering of specified materials, and thus to contribute towards the construction of this portable place of worship.

Last week, I mentioned that The Companion Bible points out that verses 3-7 list fifteen objects, which is 3 x 5, and it is thus with all numbers connected with the tabernacle which are multiples of five and this reference then refers us to Appendix 10 where we find, of the number five, this statement: "Denotes Divine grace. It is 4 + 1. It is God adding His gifts and blessing to the works of His hands. The Heb. Ha'aretz (the earth), by "Gematria" (i.e. the addition of the numerical values of the letters together) is a multiple of four, while Hasha-mayim (the heavens) is a multiple of five. The Gematria of... the Greek for Grace, is also a multiple of five. It is the leading factor in the Tabernacle measurements." In such matters of Gematria, numbers combine to indicate meanings. For example, 25 is 5 x 5, and thus is Grace intensified.

We are here shown that the materials are for the purpose of creating a symbol which is to teach the people of their relationship to God through God incarnate, Jesus Christ. Here, five, the number associated with Grace is most appropriate, for it is by His Grace that we may find Salvation and I ended last week's study by asking that we ponder the offer of that Grace and our appropriate response thereto, as seen in Romans 12:1 which gives us contemporary guidance in line with that "willing offering" of those ancient Israelites. St. Paul's words are: "I BESEECH you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service."

The design was divinely revealed, for everything about the Tabernacle was symbolic of spiritual truths, in particular those required to inform concerning, and to explain, as later revealed, the method of Salvation and Redemption through Christ Jesus, and so it must not deviate from the set pattern in any respect. Neither by materials used, the design, the persons appointed to serve as craftsmen nor, later, those who would serve therein as priests before The LORD, might deviance be tolerated, for all was symbolic of truth and a national heritage for all time. All must be done as described, so the instructions had to contain all the requisite details.

As The New Bible Commentary (Revised) says: "The sanctuary... is a holy place, but the Tabernacle... is a dwelling-place. The Tabernacle expresses certain truths, and it is safer to speak of it as a 'type' only in connection with those uses and things which actually symbolized something to the Israelites, and to which the NT explicitly attaches a symbolical meaning... It was a 'dwelling' to represent God's co-dwelling with His people; a 'tent of meeting' to express the truth that God does meet His people and reveal Himself to them; and it was a 'tent of the testimony' to remind the Israelite that within it, in the ark, was the law that was to regulate his life."

For this reason, several chapters will now be occupied by this detail. All is filled with a rich symbolic meaning, and we will find a great blessing in studying, and meditating upon, the matters which now follow.

It will, perhaps, facilitate our understanding of the whole matter if I quote a passage found in the Commentary by Keil and Delitzsch. Introducing the subject, they state: "The following is the plan upon which this section is arranged. After the command of God to the people to offer gifts for the sanctuary about to be erected, which forms the introduction to the whole (chap. xxv.1-9), the further directions commence with a description of the ark of the covenant, which Jehovah had appointed as His throne in the sanctuary, that is to say, as it were, with the sanctuary in the sanctuary (chap. xxv.10-22). Then follow- (1) the table of shew-bread and the golden candlestick (vers.23-40), as the two things by means of which the continual communion of Israel with Jehovah was to be maintained; (2) the construction of the dwelling, with an account of the position to be occupied by the three things already named (chap.xxvi); (3) the altar of burnt-offering, together with the court which was to surround the holy dwelling (chap. xxvii.1-19). This is immediately followed by the command respecting the management of the candlestick (vers. 20,21), which prepares the way for an account of the institution of the priesthood, and the investiture and consecration of the priests (chap.xxviii. and xxix.), and by the directions as to the altar of incense, and the service to be performed at it (chap.xxx.1-10); after which, there only remain a few subordinate instructions to complete the whole (chap.xxx.11 -xxxi.17)."

They point out that this description of the entire sanctuary commences with the ark of the law, the place of the manifestation of Jehovah, and terminates with the altar of incense, which stood immediately in front of it. "The dwelling was erected round Jehovah's seat, and round this the court. The priests first of all presented the sacrifices upon the altar of burnt-offering, and then proceeded into the holy place and drew near to Jehovah. The highest act in the daily service of the priests was evidently this standing before Jehovah at the altar of incense, which was only separated by the curtain from the most holy place.

Although it will not be possible in the time remaining on today's programme to comment upon the passage details, let us then read the Scripture portion which concerns the Ark of the Covenant, as found in Exodus 25:10-22:

10. And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about.
12. And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.
13. And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.
14. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them.
15. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it.
16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.
17. And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.
18. And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.
19. And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof.
20. And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.
21. And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.
22. And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.

As I said, we shall have to leave an examination of each of the details in that reading for future study. However, as we move to the close of today's programme, we might benefit by allowing our minds to review and to ponder that description which was conveyed to Moses, the God-appointed leader of Israel, there on the heights of Mount Sinai by The LORD our God, and while doing so, we ought, at all times, to remember that it is the relationship of ourselves to God's incarnate Word, Jesus Christ, that is, in fact, being conveyed to later generations of Christians by means of this dramatic symbolism, so gloriously and beautifully presented by Our Gracious God.

As revealed by the writers of the New Testament, it was all done for our benefit, and to convey to us the certainty of a glorious offer of participation in The Kingdom of Heaven under Jesus Christ. We will be wise to participate in acceptance of the means of Grace thus offered, and to assume the position, by His wonderful invitation, of becoming His representatives and ambassadors in the present world. We shall continue this study on our next programme.

9 October, 1994

THE ARK OF THE TABERNACLE - PART II

By Douglas C. Nesbit, B.A.

During the present series of Bible Studies we have been tracing God's Great Plan for the restoration of the Creation to a state agreeable to the divine pattern.

That course of studies over the past several years has taken us from the Call of Abram, in Genesis Chapter 12 through the lives of his son, Isaac and grandson Jacob (renamed Israel), and the lives of Israel's progeny, the twelve Tribes of Israel, as they passed through the experience of Egyptian bondage, and later by God's divine interventions, the miracle of The Exodus.

Last week, we had arrived at the point where Moses, having already received the Laws of The Almighty God, and having then delivered them to the people in order to obtain their agreement, and having thereafter established the covenant relationship between the Almighty God of Sinai and the whole nation of Israel, by a blood sacrifice at the foot of Mount Sinai, had returned up the steeps of that mountain to receive further instructions from God.

This present series of instructions are to determine the design and preparation of The Tabernacle, a portable tent which will then form the focal point of contact between the Israelite Tribal nation and their God, Yahweh (Jehovah), as they shift their encampment from one camp site to the next on their journey towards The Promised Land. Great spiritual symbolism for ourselves is to be found in these arrangements as we study them.

As we were about to end our last programme, I had only time to read the Scriptural passage which contains the description of the Ark within the Tabernacle, as found in Exodus 25:10-22, and I left for the present programme a more detailed examination of some of these verses. Today, I shall again read this passage, but as is my usual custom, I shall insert comments as we read it. Verse 10 says:

10. And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.

Shittim wood is another name for acacia wood, as we will determine from most references. Regarding that measuring unit of a "cubit", we find the Companion Bible refers the reader to Appendix 51, III, ii of that reference, where it states that the length of the cubit is "still in dispute." It adds that the Hebrew word, "'ammah" is a cubit "Ranging between 21 and 25 inches." (Incidentally, for those accustomed to metric measure that would make a cubit between 53 1/3 and 63 1/2 cm in length.) This would lead us to the supposition that the Ark was perhaps anywhere between 52.5 and 62.5 inches in length, and between 31.5 and 37.5 inches in breadth and depth.

A. Widdison, in his "Outlines of Lectures on the Tabernacle in the Wilderness" takes the cubit used in this tabernacle measurement to be a cubit of 21 inches, and thus the measurements of the Ark according to that reference would be approximately 4 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 feet. As we shall see as we consult other references, the length of the cubit employed in the construction of the Ark is most often taken by these authorities to be 21 inches and generally they thus agree with that estimate.

Before we consult those other references, perhaps we ought, once again, to read more of the description of this Ark, taking our passage from Exodus 25:11-16.

11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about.
12. And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.
13. And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.
14. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them.
15. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it.
16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.

Under the heading "The tabernacle furniture... The ark", The New Bible Commentary states of this ark: "Heb. 'aron, a different word from that used in Gn. vi.14 and Ex. ii.3." (Those references, incidentally, are to the ark built by Noah by God's instruction, and the ark of bulrushes to preserve the baby Moses from drowning in the Nile River, both of which are translations of the Hebrew word tebah, meaning a boat or vessel.) The New Bible Commentary continues: "It was used to describe a chest or coffer. Such was the form of the ark, the main purpose of which was to hold the two tables of the Law. It measured 3 ft. 9 in. long, 2 ft. 3 in. wide and deep (10). The purest gold only was used and was laid over the wooden structure of the ark, probably in thin plates, both on the outside and also on the inside (11), although the latter could not be seen, thus teaching that the inward part of the life of God's people must be as pure and beautiful as that which is seen outwardly. The crown (11) was a rim along the four edges of the upper surface."

Of "The four corners (12). 'The four feet' (RV)." that Commentary continues: "The rings were to be at the base of the ark so that, when it was carried, it should be raised above the shoulders of the bearers and not touch their bodies." It speaks of "The testimony (16)" in the words: "The stone tablets containing the Law were called the 'testimony' as bearing continual witness to their divine institution and to the people's promise of obedience. See Dt. iv.45n. The fact that their sacred shrine contained no image, but only the tables of the Law, reminded them that their God was both spiritual and holy."

The New Bible Commentary (Revised), after repeating the purpose of this ark as "to hold the two tables of the law", goes on to add "but in it were also stored the jar of manna (cf. 16:33, 34), and Aaron's rod. It was sited in the Holy of Holies, and became the symbol of God's presence. Such arks were common in Israel's environment, but this one was unique in that it housed the law and not an image; God is spiritual and holy. It was overlaid with pure gold, whereas its appurtenances were made of gold in which there was some measure of alloy."

New Bible Dictionary, item "Ark Of The Covenant" occupies about half a page. Its opening paragraphs read as follows: "Called also 'ark of the Lord', 'ark of God', 'ark of the covenant of the Lord' (Dt. x.8), and 'ark of the testimony' ('edut = covenant-terms:...). The ark was a rectangular box ('aron) made of acacia wood, and measured 2 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 cubits (i.e. c. 4 x 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 feet;... The whole was covered with gold and was carried on poles inserted in rings at the four lower corners. Let us now continue with our text, reading verses 17-22.

17. And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.
18. And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.
19. And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof.
20. And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.
21. And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.
22. And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.

The New Bible Dictionary says: "The lid, or 'mercy-seat', was a gold plate surrounded by two antithetically-placed cherubs with outspread wings.

The ark served (i) as receptacle for the two tablets of the Decalogue (Ex. xxv.16, 21, xl.20; Dt. x.1-5) and also for the pot of manna and Aaron's rod (Heb. ix.4,5); (ii) as the meeting-place in the inner sanctuary where the Lord revealed His will to His servants (Moses: Ex. xxv.22, xxx.36; Aaron: Lv. xvi.2; Joshua: Jos. vii.6). Thus it served as the symbol of the divine presence guiding His people. The ark was made at Sinai by Bezaleel to the pattern given to Moses (Ex. xxv.8ff.). It was used as a depository for the written law (Dt. xxxi.9; Jos. xxiv.26) and played a significant part at the crossing of the Jordan (Jos. iii-iv), the fall of Jericho (Jos. vi), and the ceremony of remembering the covenant at Mt. Ebal (Jos. viii.30ff)."

We are approaching the end of today's programme, perhaps I ought to leave with you some thoughts to carry, as the children of Israel carried the Ark of the Covenant with them as they journeyed. The notes covered thus far have dealt (however briefly), with the actual box or chest which contained several items of vast national importance, being both a national inhertiance, and focus of religious understanding concerning the person of the Almighty God and the great and gracious gift which was to emerge in a later century, through Jesus Christ, God incarnate, The Saviour of mankind and the Redeemer of Israel, Who would do for them what they could not do for themselves. We will be looking at the ways in which the Ark of the Covenant and the Mercy Seat acted as symbolic teaching aids to all who investigate these matters. Next week, I expect to take a fresh look at the meaning of The Mercy Seat, and what it means to Israel in every generation. We, of the British-Israel-World Federation believe that the generally Anglo-Celto-Saxon and kindred peoples who hear these words are direct descendants of the Israelites of ancient times, and that they ought, in consequence, to pay especial attention to these matters.

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